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Open AccessArticle

Detection of Glioblastoma Subclinical Recurrence Using Serial Diffusion Tensor Imaging

1
Department of Radiation Oncology, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
2
The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
3
Department of Imaging Physics, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(3), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12030568
Received: 21 December 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2020 / Accepted: 27 February 2020 / Published: 29 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Medical Imaging in Cancers)
Glioblastoma is an aggressive brain tumor with a propensity for intracranial recurrence. We hypothesized that tumors can be visualized with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) before they are detected on anatomical magnetic resonance (MR) images. We retrospectively analyzed serial MR images from 30 patients, including the DTI and T1-weighted images at recurrence, at 2 months and 4 months before recurrence, and at 1 month after radiation therapy. The diffusion maps and T1 images were deformably registered longitudinally. The recurrent tumor was manually segmented on the T1-weighted image and then applied to the diffusion maps at each time point to collect mean FA, diffusivities, and neurite density index (NDI) values, respectively. Group analysis of variance showed significant changes in FA (p = 0.01) and NDI (p = 0.0015) over time. Pairwise t tests also revealed that FA and NDI at 2 months before recurrence were 11.2% and 6.4% lower than those at 1 month after radiation therapy (p < 0.05), respectively. Changes in FA and NDI were observed 2 months before recurrence, suggesting that progressive microstructural changes and neurite density loss may be detectable before tumor detection in anatomical MR images. FA and NDI may serve as non-contrast MR-based biomarkers for detecting subclinical tumors. View Full-Text
Keywords: glioblastoma; radiation therapy; recurrence; MRI; diffusion tensor imaging glioblastoma; radiation therapy; recurrence; MRI; diffusion tensor imaging
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Jin, Y.; Randall, J.W.; Elhalawani, H.; Al Feghali, K.A.; Elliott, A.M.; Anderson, B.M.; Lacerda, L.; Tran, B.L.; Mohamed, A.S.; Brock, K.K.; Fuller, C.D.; Chung, C. Detection of Glioblastoma Subclinical Recurrence Using Serial Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Cancers 2020, 12, 568.

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