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Review

Emerging Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Immune Regulation and Cancer Progression

1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
2
Cancer Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
3
Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(12), 3563; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123563
Received: 29 September 2020 / Revised: 29 October 2020 / Accepted: 13 November 2020 / Published: 28 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles and the Tumour Microenvironment)
Accumulating evidence has reported that extracellular vesicles secreted by different tumor microenvironment cells can interfere with the host immune system. These vesicles transmit the signals in the tumor microenvironment that affect the proliferation, apoptosis, activation, and, metabolism of immune cells such as dendritic cells, T cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells, creating a pro-tumoral environment for tumor progression and survival. In this review, we summarize the recent literature on the function of extracellular vesicles derived from tumor cells and immune cells in regulating the critical processes associated with cancer progression. Besides, we also provide insights on how the extracellular vesicles are employed as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and drug carriers in cancer.
The development of effective therapies for cancer treatment requires a better understanding of the tumor extracellular environment and a dynamic interaction between tumor cells, the cells of the immune system, and the tumor stroma. Increasing evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles play an important role in this interaction. Extracellular vesicles are nanometer-sized membrane-bound vesicles secreted by various types of cells that facilitate intracellular communication by transferring proteins, various lipids, and nucleic acids, especially miRNAs, between cells. Extracellular vesicles play discrete roles in the immune regulatory functions, such as antigen presentation, and activation or suppression of immune cells. Achieving therapeutic intervention through targeting of extracellular vesicles is a crucial area of research now. Thus, a deeper knowledge of exosome biology and the molecular mechanism of immune regulation is likely to provide significant insight into therapeutic intervention utilizing extracellular vesicles to combat this dreadful disease. This review describes the recent updates on immune regulation by extracellular vesicles in cancer progression and possible use in cancer therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; cancer; tumor microenvironment; immune cells; immunotherapy; biomarkers extracellular vesicles; cancer; tumor microenvironment; immune cells; immunotherapy; biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mittal, S.; Gupta, P.; Chaluvally-Raghavan, P.; Pradeep, S. Emerging Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Immune Regulation and Cancer Progression. Cancers 2020, 12, 3563. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123563

AMA Style

Mittal S, Gupta P, Chaluvally-Raghavan P, Pradeep S. Emerging Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Immune Regulation and Cancer Progression. Cancers. 2020; 12(12):3563. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123563

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mittal, Sonam, Prachi Gupta, Pradeep Chaluvally-Raghavan, and Sunila Pradeep. 2020. "Emerging Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Immune Regulation and Cancer Progression" Cancers 12, no. 12: 3563. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123563

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