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Review

Role of SOX Protein Groups F and H in Lung Cancer Progression

1
Department of Histology and Embryology, Department of Human Morphology and Embryology, Medical University, 50-368 Wroclaw, Poland
2
Department of Ultrastructural Research, Department of Human Morphology and Embryology, Medical University, 50-368 Wroclaw, Poland
3
Department of Physiotherapy, University School of Physical Education, 51-612 Wroclaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(11), 3235; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113235
Received: 9 October 2020 / Revised: 24 October 2020 / Accepted: 27 October 2020 / Published: 3 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Pathophysiology)
The expression of SOX proteins has been demonstrated in many tissues at various stages of embryogenesis, where they play the role of transcription factors. The SOX18 protein (along with SOX7 and SOX17) belongs to the SOXF group and is mainly involved in the development of the cardiovascular system, where its expression was found in the endothelium. SOX18 expression was also demonstrated in neoplastic lines of gastric, pancreatic and colon adenocarcinomas. The prognostic role of SOX30 expression has only been studied in lung adenocarcinomas, where a low expression of this factor in the stromal tumor was associated with a worse prognosis for patients. Because of the complexity of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development, the role of the SOX proteins in this malignancy is still not fully understood. Many recently published papers show that SOX family protein members play a crucial role in the progression of NSCLC.
The SOX family proteins are proved to play a crucial role in the development of the lymphatic ducts and the cardiovascular system. Moreover, an increased expression level of the SOX18 protein has been found in many malignances, such as melanoma, stomach, pancreatic breast and lung cancers. Another SOX family protein, the SOX30 transcription factor, is responsible for the development of male germ cells. Additionally, recent studies have shown its proapoptotic character in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Our preliminary studies showed a disparity in the amount of mRNA of the SOX18 gene relative to the amount of protein. This is why our attention has been focused on microRNA (miRNA) molecules, which could regulate the SOX18 gene transcript level. Recent data point to the fact that, in practically all types of cancer, hundreds of genes exhibit an abnormal methylation, covering around 5–10% of the thousands of CpG islands present in the promoter sequences, which in normal cells should not be methylated from the moment the embryo finishes its development. It has been demonstrated that in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases there is a large heterogeneity of the methylation process. The role of the SOX18 and SOX30 expression in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) is not yet fully understood. However, if we take into account previous reports, these proteins may be important factors in the development and progression of these malignancies. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-small cell lung carcinoma; lung squamous-cell carcinoma; lung adenocarcinoma; SOX protein family; SOX7; SOX17; SOX18; SOX30; miRNA; CpG non-small cell lung carcinoma; lung squamous-cell carcinoma; lung adenocarcinoma; SOX protein family; SOX7; SOX17; SOX18; SOX30; miRNA; CpG
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MDPI and ACS Style

Olbromski, M.; Podhorska-Okołów, M.; Dzięgiel, P. Role of SOX Protein Groups F and H in Lung Cancer Progression. Cancers 2020, 12, 3235. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113235

AMA Style

Olbromski M, Podhorska-Okołów M, Dzięgiel P. Role of SOX Protein Groups F and H in Lung Cancer Progression. Cancers. 2020; 12(11):3235. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113235

Chicago/Turabian Style

Olbromski, Mateusz, Marzenna Podhorska-Okołów, and Piotr Dzięgiel. 2020. "Role of SOX Protein Groups F and H in Lung Cancer Progression" Cancers 12, no. 11: 3235. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113235

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