The SOX family proteins are proved to play a crucial role in the development of the lymphatic ducts and the cardiovascular system. Moreover, an increased expression level of the SOX18 protein has been found in many malignances, such as melanoma, stomach, pancreatic breast and lung cancers. Another SOX family protein, the SOX30 transcription factor, is responsible for the development of male germ cells. Additionally, recent studies have shown its proapoptotic character in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Our preliminary studies showed a disparity in the amount of mRNA of the SOX18
gene relative to the amount of protein. This is why our attention has been focused on microRNA (miRNA) molecules, which could regulate the SOX18
gene transcript level. Recent data point to the fact that, in practically all types of cancer, hundreds of genes exhibit an abnormal methylation, covering around 5–10% of the thousands of CpG islands present in the promoter sequences, which in normal cells should not be methylated from the moment the embryo finishes its development. It has been demonstrated that in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases there is a large heterogeneity of the methylation process. The role of the SOX18 and SOX30 expression in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) is not yet fully understood. However, if we take into account previous reports, these proteins may be important factors in the development and progression of these malignancies.
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