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Id1 and PD-1 Combined Blockade Impairs Tumor Growth and Survival of KRAS-mutant Lung Cancer by Stimulating PD-L1 Expression and Tumor Infiltrating CD8+ T Cells

1
Department of Oncology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
2
Program in Solid Tumors, Center for Applied Medical Research, Program in Solid Tumors, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
3
Bioinformatics Platform, Center for Applied Medical Research, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
4
Program of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Center for Applied Medical Research, Program of Immunology and Immunotherapy, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
5
Flow cytometry Core Facility, Center for Applied Medical Research, Flow Cytometry Core Facility, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
6
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC), 31008 Madrid, Spain
7
Thoracic Medical Oncology Program, Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
8
Cancer Research Department, Fundación Arturo Lopez Perez, Santiago de Chile 7500921, Chile
9
Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Physiology, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
10
IdiSNA, Navarra Institute for Health Research, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
11
Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, School of Sciences, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Cancers 2020, 12(11), 3169; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113169
Received: 22 September 2020 / Revised: 19 October 2020 / Accepted: 25 October 2020 / Published: 28 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncogenes in Cancer)
Lung adenocarcinoma is the most frequent lung cancer subtype. Many of those adenocarcinomas of the lung are driven by the KRAS gene. Although immunotherapy has significantly improved the clinical outcomes of patients with lung adenocarcinomas, many patients do not benefit from that therapeutic strategy. Id1 is a protein involved in immunosuppression. Here we aimed to test whether a combined blockade of Id1 and PD-1 is able to improve outcomes of mice models with KRAS-driven lung adenocarcinoma.
The use of PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors in advanced NSCLC is associated with longer survival. However, many patients do not benefit from PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, largely because of immunosuppression. New immunotherapy-based combinations are under investigation in an attempt to improve outcomes. Id1 (inhibitor of differentiation 1) is involved in immunosuppression. In this study, we explored the potential synergistic effect of the combination of Id1 inhibition and pharmacological PD-L1 blockade in three different syngeneic murine KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma models. TCGA analysis demonstrated a negative and statistically significant correlation between PD-L1 and Id1 expression levels. This observation was confirmed in vitro in human and murine KRAS-driven lung cancer cell lines. In vivo experiments in KRAS-mutant syngeneic and metastatic murine lung adenocarcinoma models showed that the combined blockade targeting Id1 and PD-1 was more effective than each treatment alone in terms of tumor growth impairment and overall survival improvement. Mechanistically, multiplex quantification of CD3+/CD4+/CD8+ T cells and flow cytometry analysis showed that combined therapy favors tumor infiltration by CD8+ T cells, whilst in vivo CD8+ T cell depletion led to tumor growth restoration. Co-culture assays using CD8+ cells and tumor cells showed that T cells present a higher antitumor effect when tumor cells lack Id1 expression. These findings highlight that Id1 blockade may contribute to a significant immune enhancement of antitumor efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors by increasing PD-L1 expression and harnessing tumor infiltration of CD8+ T lymphocytes. View Full-Text
Keywords: KRAS lung adenocarcinoma; inhibitor of differentiation; PD-1 inhibition; PD-L1 KRAS lung adenocarcinoma; inhibitor of differentiation; PD-1 inhibition; PD-L1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Baraibar, I.; Roman, M.; Rodríguez-Remírez, M.; López, I.; Vilalta, A.; Guruceaga, E.; Ecay, M.; Collantes, M.; Lozano, T.; Alignani, D.; Puyalto, A.; Oliver, A.; Ortiz-Espinosa, S.; Moreno, H.; Torregrosa, M.; Rolfo, C.; Caglevic, C.; García-Ros, D.; Villalba-Esparza, M.; De Andrea, C.; Vicent, S.; Pío, R.; Lasarte, J.J.; Calvo, A.; Ajona, D.; Gil-Bazo, I. Id1 and PD-1 Combined Blockade Impairs Tumor Growth and Survival of KRAS-mutant Lung Cancer by Stimulating PD-L1 Expression and Tumor Infiltrating CD8+ T Cells. Cancers 2020, 12, 3169. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113169

AMA Style

Baraibar I, Roman M, Rodríguez-Remírez M, López I, Vilalta A, Guruceaga E, Ecay M, Collantes M, Lozano T, Alignani D, Puyalto A, Oliver A, Ortiz-Espinosa S, Moreno H, Torregrosa M, Rolfo C, Caglevic C, García-Ros D, Villalba-Esparza M, De Andrea C, Vicent S, Pío R, Lasarte JJ, Calvo A, Ajona D, Gil-Bazo I. Id1 and PD-1 Combined Blockade Impairs Tumor Growth and Survival of KRAS-mutant Lung Cancer by Stimulating PD-L1 Expression and Tumor Infiltrating CD8+ T Cells. Cancers. 2020; 12(11):3169. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113169

Chicago/Turabian Style

Baraibar, Iosune; Roman, Marta; Rodríguez-Remírez, María; López, Inés; Vilalta, Anna; Guruceaga, Elisabeth; Ecay, Margarita; Collantes, María; Lozano, Teresa; Alignani, Diego; Puyalto, Ander; Oliver, Ana; Ortiz-Espinosa, Sergio; Moreno, Haritz; Torregrosa, María; Rolfo, Christian; Caglevic, Christian; García-Ros, David; Villalba-Esparza, María; De Andrea, Carlos; Vicent, Silvestre; Pío, Rubén; Lasarte, Juan J.; Calvo, Alfonso; Ajona, Daniel; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio. 2020. "Id1 and PD-1 Combined Blockade Impairs Tumor Growth and Survival of KRAS-mutant Lung Cancer by Stimulating PD-L1 Expression and Tumor Infiltrating CD8+ T Cells" Cancers 12, no. 11: 3169. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113169

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