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Advancing CAR T-Cell Therapy for Solid Tumors: Lessons Learned from Lymphoma Treatment

1
Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan, Russia
2
Laboratory of Transplantation Immunology, National Hematology Research Centre, 125167 Moscow, Russia
3
Institute of Hematology, Almazov National Medical Research Center, 197341 Saint Petersburg, Russia
4
Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997 Moscow, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010125
Received: 13 November 2019 / Revised: 28 December 2019 / Accepted: 30 December 2019 / Published: 3 January 2020
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) immunotherapy is one of the most promising modern approaches for the treatment of cancer. To date only two CAR T-cell products, Kymriah® and Yescarta®, have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of lymphoblastic leukemia and B-cell lymphoma. Administration of CAR T-cells to control solid tumors has long been envisaged as one of the most difficult therapeutic tasks. The first two clinical trials conducted in sarcoma and neuroblastoma patients showed clinical benefits of CAR T-cells, yet multiple obstacles still hold us back from having accessible and efficient therapy. Why did such an effective treatment for relapsed and refractory hematological malignancies demonstrate only relatively modest efficiency in the context of solid tumors? Is it due to the lucky selection of the “magic” CD19 antigen, which might be one of a kind? Or do lymphomas lack the immunosuppressive features of solid tumors? Here we review the existing knowledge in the field of CAR T-cell therapy and address the heterogeneity of solid tumors and their diverse strategies of immunoevasion. We also provide an insight into prospective developments of CAR T-cell technologies against solid tumors. View Full-Text
Keywords: chimeric antigen receptor; CAR T-cell therapy; TCR therapy; solid tumor; lymphoma chimeric antigen receptor; CAR T-cell therapy; TCR therapy; solid tumor; lymphoma
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Titov, A.; Valiullina, A.; Zmievskaya, E.; Zaikova, E.; Petukhov, A.; Miftakhova, R.; Bulatov, E.; Rizvanov, A. Advancing CAR T-Cell Therapy for Solid Tumors: Lessons Learned from Lymphoma Treatment. Cancers 2020, 12, 125.

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