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Open AccessArticle

Hyperthermia Treatment Planning Including Convective Flow in Cerebrospinal Fluid for Brain Tumour Hyperthermia Treatment Using a Novel Dedicated Paediatric Brain Applicator

1
Department of Radiotherapy, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
3
Department of Urology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
4
Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, 17164 Stockholm, Sweden
5
Department of Pediatric Oncology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17164 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(8), 1183; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11081183
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 29 July 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hyperthermia-based Anticancer Treatments)
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Abstract

Hyperthermia therapy (40–44 °C) is a promising option to increase efficacy of radiotherapy/chemotherapy for brain tumours, in particular paediatric brain tumours. The Chalmers Hyperthermia Helmet is developed for this purpose. Hyperthermia treatment planning is required for treatment optimisation, but current planning systems do not involve a physically correct model of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This study investigates the necessity of fluid modelling for treatment planning. We made treatments plans using the Helmet for both pre-operative and post-operative cases, comparing temperature distributions predicted with three CSF models: a convective “fluid” model, a non-convective “solid” CSF model, and CSF models with increased effective thermal conductivity (“high-k”). Treatment plans were evaluated by T90, T50 and T10 target temperatures and treatment-limiting hot spots. Adequate heating is possible with the helmet. In the pre-operative case, treatment plan quality was comparable for all three models. In the post-operative case, the high-k models were more accurate than the solid model. Predictions to within ±1 °C were obtained by a 10–20-fold increased effective thermal conductivity. Accurate modelling of the temperature in CSF requires fluid dynamics, but modelling CSF as a solid with enhanced effective thermal conductivity might be a practical alternative for a convective fluid model for many applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperthermia treatment; treatment planning; computational fluid dynamics; cerebrospinal fluid; brain malignancies; medulloblastoma hyperthermia treatment; treatment planning; computational fluid dynamics; cerebrospinal fluid; brain malignancies; medulloblastoma
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Schooneveldt, G.; Dobšíček Trefná, H.; Persson, M.; de Reijke, T.M.; Blomgren, K.; Kok, H.P.; Crezee, H. Hyperthermia Treatment Planning Including Convective Flow in Cerebrospinal Fluid for Brain Tumour Hyperthermia Treatment Using a Novel Dedicated Paediatric Brain Applicator. Cancers 2019, 11, 1183.

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