While conventional cancer treatments, such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, have been combined for decades in an effort to treat cancer patients, the emergence of novel fields of cancer research have led to a renewed interest in combining conventional treatments with more innovative approaches. The realisation that cancer progression is not exclusively due to changes in the cancer epithelial cells, but also involves changes in the tumour microenvironment, has opened new avenues for combination treatments. Here we discuss the use of combination therapies presented at the 55th Irish Association for Cancer Research (IACR) Annual Conference, highlighting examples of novel therapeutic strategies which, combined with conventional therapies, may greatly enhance not only the overall outcome for patients, but also the quality of life for cancer survivors. Among the novel treatment strategies, immune metabolism, epigenetic therapies and physical exercise are presented. In addition, novel technologies in the field of precision medicine, which will be useful to discover new therapeutics and to stratify patients for combination treatments, are also discussed.
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