Several studies have reported that diet’s inflammatory potential is related to chronic diseases such as cancer, but its relationship with cervical cancer risk has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®
) and cervical cancer risk among Korean women. This study consisted of 764 cases with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1, 2, 3, or cervical cancer, and 729 controls from six gynecologic oncology clinics in South Korea. The DII was computed using a validated semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Odds ratios and 95% CI were calculated using multinomial logistic regression. Higher DII scores were associated with higher cervical carcinogenesis risk. A significant association was observed between the DII and risk among CIN2/3 [Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.14; 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) = 1.57–6.29] and cervical cancer patients (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.01–3.88). Among Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-positive women, a significant association was found between DII and cervical carcinoma risk with CIN2/3 (OR = 5.65; 95% CI = 1.38–23.2). Moreover, women with CIN2/3 and cervical cancer showed a significant association with proinflammatory diet in people without of physical activity (OR = 3.79; 95% CI = 1.81–7.93). These findings suggest that high intake of proinflammatory diets is associated with increased risk of cervical carcinogenesis among women with CIN2/3. Further evaluation in future studies to confirm this association is warranted.
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