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Review

Rare Distant Metastatic Disease of Ovarian and Peritoneal Carcinomatosis: A Review of the Literature

1
1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Alexandra Hospital, Gynecologic Oncology Unit, University of Athens, Athens 115 28, Greece
2
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics-Gynaecology, Royal Oldham Hospital, Pennine Accute Trust, Oldham OL12JH, UK
3
3rd Department of Surgery, “AHEPA” University Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 546 36, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(8), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11081044
Received: 9 June 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 22 July 2019 / Published: 24 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ovarian Cancer Metastasis)
Background: Although metastases of ovarian and peritoneal carcinomatosis are most commonly found within the peritoneal cavity, there is a number of other rare distant sites that have been reported. Our goal is to provide an evidence-based summary of the available literature considering the rare distant metastatic sites of ovarian and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Methods: A comprehensive search of the literature was conducted, with Medline/PubMed being searched for cases of rare metastatic disease originated from primary ovarian and peritoneal cancer with related articles up to 2019 including terms such as “ovarian cancer”, “metastases”, “peritoneal” and others. Results: The most common mechanism of ovarian cancer metastases consists of primarily dissemination within the peritoneal cavity, while, rare and distant sites can either occur at the beginning or during the course of the disease and they are usually associated with hematogenous route and lymphatic invasion, having poor prognosis, with the least common sites being skin, bone, CNS, eye, placenta, central airways, rare lymph nodes, intra-abdominal organs, heart and breast. Conclusions: The occurrence of metastatic sites described in this review represents the most common rare distant metastatic sites, and even though their patterns of metastases are still not fully clarified due to the rarity of the reports, they offer valuable information considering the pathophysiology of the disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ovarian cancer; distant; metastases; peritoneal cancer Ovarian cancer; distant; metastases; peritoneal cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Thomakos, N.; Diakosavvas, M.; Machairiotis, N.; Fasoulakis, Z.; Zarogoulidis, P.; Rodolakis, A. Rare Distant Metastatic Disease of Ovarian and Peritoneal Carcinomatosis: A Review of the Literature. Cancers 2019, 11, 1044. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11081044

AMA Style

Thomakos N, Diakosavvas M, Machairiotis N, Fasoulakis Z, Zarogoulidis P, Rodolakis A. Rare Distant Metastatic Disease of Ovarian and Peritoneal Carcinomatosis: A Review of the Literature. Cancers. 2019; 11(8):1044. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11081044

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thomakos, Nikolaos, Michail Diakosavvas, Nikolaos Machairiotis, Zacharias Fasoulakis, Paul Zarogoulidis, and Alexandros Rodolakis. 2019. "Rare Distant Metastatic Disease of Ovarian and Peritoneal Carcinomatosis: A Review of the Literature" Cancers 11, no. 8: 1044. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11081044

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