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MicroRNA Regulation of Epigenetic Modifiers in Breast Cancer

1
Center for Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109; USA
2
Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
3
Center for Research on Environment Disease, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536; USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(7), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11070897
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 16 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Regulatory and Non-Coding RNAs in Cancer Epigenetic Mechanisms)
Epigenetics refers to the heritable changes in gene expression without a change in the DNA sequence itself. Two of these major changes include aberrant DNA methylation as well as changes to histone modification patterns. Alterations to the epigenome can drive expression of oncogenes and suppression of tumor suppressors, resulting in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. In addition to modifications of the epigenome, microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation is also a hallmark for cancer initiation and metastasis. Advances in our understanding of cancer biology demonstrate that alterations in the epigenome are not only a major cause of miRNA dysregulation in cancer, but that miRNAs themselves also indirectly drive these DNA and histone modifications. More explicitly, recent work has shown that miRNAs can regulate chromatin structure and gene expression by directly targeting key enzymes involved in these processes. This review aims to summarize these research findings specifically in the context of breast cancer. This review also discusses miRNAs as epigenetic biomarkers and as therapeutics, and presents a comprehensive summary of currently validated epigenetic targets in breast cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-coding RNAs; microRNAs; epigenetics; breast cancer non-coding RNAs; microRNAs; epigenetics; breast cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Humphries, B.; Wang, Z.; Yang, C. MicroRNA Regulation of Epigenetic Modifiers in Breast Cancer. Cancers 2019, 11, 897. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11070897

AMA Style

Humphries B, Wang Z, Yang C. MicroRNA Regulation of Epigenetic Modifiers in Breast Cancer. Cancers. 2019; 11(7):897. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11070897

Chicago/Turabian Style

Humphries, Brock; Wang, Zhishan; Yang, Chengfeng. 2019. "MicroRNA Regulation of Epigenetic Modifiers in Breast Cancer" Cancers 11, no. 7: 897. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11070897

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