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Uveal Melanoma, Angiogenesis and Immunotherapy, Is There Any Hope?

1
Medical Oncology Department, Catalan Institute of Cancer (ICO), IDIBELL-OncoBell, Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08908 Barcelona, Spain
2
Clinical Research in Solid Tumors Group (CREST), Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute IDIBELL-OncoBell, Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08908 Barcelona, Spain
3
Unit of Biomarkers and Susceptibility, Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL-OncoBell, Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08908 Barcelona, Spain
4
Tumor Angiogenesis Group, ProCURE, Catalan Institute of Oncology, IDIBELL-OncoBell, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08908 Barcelona, Spain
5
Ophthalmology Department; University Hospital of Bellvitge, IDIBELL, Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08907 Barcelona, Spain
6
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC), 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(6), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11060834
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uveal Melanoma)
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Abstract

Uveal melanoma is considered a rare disease but it is the most common intraocular malignancy in adults. Local treatments are effective, but the systemic recurrence rate is unacceptably high. Moreover, once metastasis have developed the prognosis is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%, and systemic therapies, including immunotherapy, have rendered poor results. The tumour biology is complex, but angiogenesis is a highly important pathway in these tumours. Vasculogenic mimicry, the ability of melanomas to generate vascular channels independently of endothelial cells, could play an important role, but no effective therapy targeting this process has been developed so far. Angiogenesis modulates the tumour microenvironment of melanomas, and a close interplay is established between them. Therefore, combining immune strategies with drugs targeting angiogenesis offers a new therapeutic paradigm. In preclinical studies, these approaches effectively target these tumours, and a phase I clinical study has shown encouraging results in cutaneous melanomas. In this review, we will discuss the importance of angiogenesis in uveal melanoma, with a special focus on vasculogenic mimicry, and describe the interplay between angiogenesis and the tumour microenvironment. In addition, we will suggest future therapeutic approaches based on these observations and mention ways in which to potentially enhance current treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: uveal melanoma; angiogenesis; immunotherapy; tumour microenvironment; vasculogenic mimicry uveal melanoma; angiogenesis; immunotherapy; tumour microenvironment; vasculogenic mimicry
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Castet, F.; Garcia-Mulero, S.; Sanz-Pamplona, R.; Cuellar, A.; Casanovas, O.; Caminal, J.M.; Piulats, J.M. Uveal Melanoma, Angiogenesis and Immunotherapy, Is There Any Hope? Cancers 2019, 11, 834.

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