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Cancers 2019, 11(2), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020241

Protein Phosphatases—A Touchy Enemy in the Battle Against Glioblastomas: A Review

1
Division of Brain Tumor Translational Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan
2
Department of Neurosurgery, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513, Japan
3
Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, 8-1 Kawadacho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 16 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glioblastoma: State of the Art and Future Perspectives)
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Abstract

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant tumor arising from brain parenchyma. Although many efforts have been made to develop therapies for GBM, the prognosis still remains poor, mainly because of the difficulty in total resection of the tumor mass from brain tissue and the resistance of the residual tumor against standard chemoradiotherapy. Therefore, novel adjuvant therapies are urgently needed. Recent genome-wide analyses of GBM cases have clarified molecular signaling mechanisms underlying GBM biology. However, results of clinical trials targeting phosphorylation-mediated signaling have been unsatisfactory to date. Protein phosphatases are enzymes that antagonize phosphorylation signaling by dephosphorylating phosphorylated signaling molecules. Recently, the critical roles of phosphatases in the regulation of oncogenic signaling in malignant tumor cells have been reported, and tumorigenic roles of deregulated phosphatases have been demonstrated in GBM. However, a detailed mechanism underlying phosphatase-mediated signaling transduction in the regulation of GBM has not been elucidated, and such information is necessary to apply phosphatases as a therapeutic target for GBM. This review highlights and summarizes the phosphatases that have crucial roles in the regulation of oncogenic signaling in GBM cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein phosphatase; glioblastoma; signaling; therapy protein phosphatase; glioblastoma; signaling; therapy
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Tomiyama, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Mori, K.; Ichimura, K. Protein Phosphatases—A Touchy Enemy in the Battle Against Glioblastomas: A Review. Cancers 2019, 11, 241.

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