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Open AccessReview

Emerging Functional Imaging Biomarkers of Tumour Responses to Radiotherapy

1
Department of Clinical Radiology, University College London Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU, UK
2
Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cancers 2019, 11(2), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020131
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Radiotherapy)
Tumour responses to radiotherapy are currently primarily assessed by changes in size. Imaging permits non-invasive, whole-body assessment of tumour burden and guides treatment options for most tumours. However, in most tumours, changes in size are slow to manifest and can sometimes be difficult to interpret or misleading, potentially leading to prolonged durations of ineffective treatment and delays in changing therapy. Functional imaging techniques that monitor biological processes have the potential to detect tumour responses to treatment earlier and refine treatment options based on tumour biology rather than solely on size and staging. By considering the biological effects of radiotherapy, this review focusses on emerging functional imaging techniques with the potential to augment morphological imaging and serve as biomarkers of early response to radiotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: radiotherapy; functional imaging; magnetic resonance imaging; positron emission tomography; hyperpolarised 13C; diffusion-weighted imaging; treatment response radiotherapy; functional imaging; magnetic resonance imaging; positron emission tomography; hyperpolarised 13C; diffusion-weighted imaging; treatment response
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MDPI and ACS Style

Campbell, A.; Davis, L.M.; Wilkinson, S.K.; Hesketh, R.L. Emerging Functional Imaging Biomarkers of Tumour Responses to Radiotherapy. Cancers 2019, 11, 131.

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