Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer, is derived mostly from a background of chronic inflammation. Multiple immunotherapeutic strategies have been evaluated in HCC, with some degree of success, particularly with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Despite the initial enthusiasm, treatment benefit is only appreciated in a modest proportion of patients (response rate to single agent ~20%). Therapy-induced immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and economic impact are pertinent considerations with ICB. It is imperative that a deeper understanding of its mechanisms of action either as monotherapy or in combination with other therapeutic agents is needed. We herein discuss the latest developments in the immunotherapeutic approaches for HCC, the potential predictive biomarkers., and the rationale for combination therapies. We also outline promising future immunotherapeutic strategies for HCC patients.
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