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Overview of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma, and The ITA.LI.CA Cohort Derived Estimate of Amenability Rate to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Clinical Practice
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Rationale of Immunotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Its Potential Biomarkers

by David Tai 1, Su Pin Choo 1,2 and Valerie Chew 3,*
1
National Cancer Centre, Singapore 169610 , (NCCS), Singapore
2
Curie Oncology, Mount Elizabeth Novena Specialist Centre, Singapore 329563, Singapore
3
Translational Immunology Institute (TII), SingHealth-DukeNUS Academic Medical Centre, Singapore 169856, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(12), 1926; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121926
Received: 30 October 2019 / Revised: 27 November 2019 / Accepted: 29 November 2019 / Published: 3 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer, is derived mostly from a background of chronic inflammation. Multiple immunotherapeutic strategies have been evaluated in HCC, with some degree of success, particularly with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Despite the initial enthusiasm, treatment benefit is only appreciated in a modest proportion of patients (response rate to single agent ~20%). Therapy-induced immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and economic impact are pertinent considerations with ICB. It is imperative that a deeper understanding of its mechanisms of action either as monotherapy or in combination with other therapeutic agents is needed. We herein discuss the latest developments in the immunotherapeutic approaches for HCC, the potential predictive biomarkers., and the rationale for combination therapies. We also outline promising future immunotherapeutic strategies for HCC patients.
Keywords: immunotherapy; biomarkers; combination immunotherapy; immune-related adverse events (irAEs), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) immunotherapy; biomarkers; combination immunotherapy; immune-related adverse events (irAEs), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
MDPI and ACS Style

Tai, D.; Choo, S.P.; Chew, V. Rationale of Immunotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Its Potential Biomarkers. Cancers 2019, 11, 1926.

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