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Open AccessReview

Racial Differences in Immunological Landscape Modifiers Contributing to Disparity in Prostate Cancer

1
Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Immunology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310, USA
2
Cancer Health Equity Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(12), 1857; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121857
Received: 24 October 2019 / Revised: 13 November 2019 / Accepted: 15 November 2019 / Published: 25 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer: Past, Present, and Future)
Prostate cancer affects African Americans disproportionately by exhibiting greater incidence, rapid disease progression, and higher mortality when compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Additionally, standard treatment interventions do not achieve similar outcome in African Americans compared to Caucasian Americans, indicating differences in host factors contributing to racial disparity. African Americans have allelic variants and hyper-expression of genes that often lead to an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, possibly contributing to more aggressive tumors and poorer disease and therapeutic outcomes than Caucasians. In this review, we have discussed race-specific differences in external factors impacting internal milieu, which modify immunological topography as well as contribute to disparity in prostate cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: racial disparity; immunity; African American; Caucasian racial disparity; immunity; African American; Caucasian
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MDPI and ACS Style

King Thomas, J.; Mir, H.; Kapur, N.; Singh, S. Racial Differences in Immunological Landscape Modifiers Contributing to Disparity in Prostate Cancer. Cancers 2019, 11, 1857. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121857

AMA Style

King Thomas J, Mir H, Kapur N, Singh S. Racial Differences in Immunological Landscape Modifiers Contributing to Disparity in Prostate Cancer. Cancers. 2019; 11(12):1857. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121857

Chicago/Turabian Style

King Thomas, Jeronay; Mir, Hina; Kapur, Neeraj; Singh, Shailesh. 2019. "Racial Differences in Immunological Landscape Modifiers Contributing to Disparity in Prostate Cancer" Cancers 11, no. 12: 1857. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121857

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