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Review

The Pivotal Roles of the Epithelial Membrane Protein Family in Cancer Invasiveness and Metastasis

1
Division of Molecular Medical Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu 520-2192, Japan
2
Translational Research Unit, Department of International Collaborative Research, Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu 520-2192, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(11), 1620; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11111620
Received: 2 September 2019 / Revised: 8 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 23 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Invasion and Metastasis)
The members of the family of epithelial membrane proteins (EMPs), EMP1, EMP2, and EMP3, possess four putative transmembrane domain structures and are composed of approximately 160 amino acid residues. EMPs are encoded by the growth arrest-specific 3 (GAS3)/peripheral myelin protein 22 kDa (PMP22) gene family. The GAS3/PMP22 family members play roles in cell migration, growth, and differentiation. Evidence indicates an association of these molecules with cancer progression and metastasis. Each EMP has pro- and anti-metastatic functions that are likely involved in the complex mechanisms of cancer progression. We have recently demonstrated that the upregulation of EMP1 expression facilitates cancer cell migration and invasion through the activation of a small GTPase, Rac1. The inoculation of prostate cancer cells overexpressing EMP1 into nude mice leads to metastasis to the lymph nodes and lungs, indicating that EMP1 contributes to metastasis. Pro-metastatic properties of EMP2 and EMP3 have also been proposed. Thus, targeting EMPs may provide new insights into their clinical utility. Here, we highlight the important aspects of EMPs in cancer biology, particularly invasiveness and metastasis, and describe recent therapeutic approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: apoptosis; cancer progression; cell migration; cell proliferation; transmembrane protein apoptosis; cancer progression; cell migration; cell proliferation; transmembrane protein
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmat Amin, M.K.B.; Shimizu, A.; Ogita, H. The Pivotal Roles of the Epithelial Membrane Protein Family in Cancer Invasiveness and Metastasis. Cancers 2019, 11, 1620. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11111620

AMA Style

Ahmat Amin MKB, Shimizu A, Ogita H. The Pivotal Roles of the Epithelial Membrane Protein Family in Cancer Invasiveness and Metastasis. Cancers. 2019; 11(11):1620. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11111620

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahmat Amin, Mohammad K.B.; Shimizu, Akio; Ogita, Hisakazu. 2019. "The Pivotal Roles of the Epithelial Membrane Protein Family in Cancer Invasiveness and Metastasis" Cancers 11, no. 11: 1620. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11111620

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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