Next Article in Journal
Novel STAT3 Inhibitor LDOC1 Targets Phospho-JAK2 for Degradation by Interacting with LNX1 and Regulates the Aggressiveness of Lung Cancer
Next Article in Special Issue
Influence of Body Mass Index on Long-Term Outcome in Patients with Rectal Cancer—A Single Centre Experience
Previous Article in Journal
Spectrum of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotypes in Circulating Tumour Cells from Early Breast Cancer Patients
Previous Article in Special Issue
Obesity-Induced TNFα and IL-6 Signaling: The Missing Link between Obesity and Inflammation—Driven Liver and Colorectal Cancers
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Obesity, Leptin and Breast Cancer: Epidemiological Evidence and Proposed Mechanisms

1
Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS), Italy
2
Centro Sanitario, University of Calabria, Via P Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS), Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Joint first authors.
Joint senior authors.
Cancers 2019, 11(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11010062
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity as a Risk Factor for Cancer)
  |  
PDF [1397 KB, uploaded 9 January 2019]
  |  

Abstract

The prevalence of obesity has been steadily increasing over the past few decades in several developed and developing countries, with resultant hazardous health implications. Substantial epidemiological evidence has shown that excessive adiposity strongly influences risk, prognosis, and progression of various malignancies, including breast cancer. Indeed, it is now well recognized that obesity is a complex physiologic state associated with multiple molecular changes capable of modulating the behavior of breast tumor cells as well of the surrounding microenvironment. Particularly, insulin resistance, hyperactivation of insulin-like growth factor pathways, and increased levels of estrogen due to aromatization by the adipose tissue, inflammatory cytokines, and adipokines contribute to breast cancerogenesis. Among adipokines, leptin, whose circulating levels increase proportionally to total adipose tissue mass, has been identified as a key member of the molecular network in obesity. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the epidemiological link existing between obesity and breast cancer and outlines the molecular mechanisms underlying this connection. The multifaceted role of the obesity adipokine leptin in this respect is also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; obesity; adipokines; leptin; adiponectin; inflammation; estrogens; insulin/insulin-like growth factor I breast cancer; obesity; adipokines; leptin; adiponectin; inflammation; estrogens; insulin/insulin-like growth factor I
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Andò, S.; Gelsomino, L.; Panza, S.; Giordano, C.; Bonofiglio, D.; Barone, I.; Catalano, S. Obesity, Leptin and Breast Cancer: Epidemiological Evidence and Proposed Mechanisms. Cancers 2019, 11, 62.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top