Next Article in Journal
Platinum Resistance in Ovarian Cancer: Role of DNA Repair
Previous Article in Journal
A Barter Economy in Tumors: Exchanging Metabolites through Gap Junctions
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Cancers 2019, 11(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11010118

Oral Administration of Fermented Papaya (FPP®) Controls the Growth of a Murine Melanoma through the In Vivo Induction of a Natural Antioxidant Response

1
Department of Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
2
Centro Nazionale Sperimentazione e Benessere Animale, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 20 January 2019
Full-Text   |   PDF [1513 KB, uploaded 20 January 2019]   |  

Abstract

Prolonged oxidative stress may play a key role in tumor development. Antioxidant molecules are contained in many foods and seem to have a potential role in future anti-tumor strategies. Among the natural antioxidants the beneficial effect of Fermented Papaya (FPP®) is well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of orally administered FPP® in either the prevention or treatment of a murine model of melanoma. The tumor growth was analyzed together with the blood levels of both oxidants (ROS) and anti-oxidants (SOD-1 and GSH). The results showed that FPP® controlled tumor growth, reducing the tumor mass of about three to seven times vs. untreated mice. The most significant effect was obtained with sublingual administration of FPP® close to the inoculation of melanoma. At the time of the sacrifice none of mice treated with FPP® had metastases and the subcutaneous tumors were significantly smaller and amelanotic, compared to untreated mice. Moreover, the FPP® anti-tumor effect was consistent with the decrease of total ROS levels and the increase in the blood levels of GSH and SOD-1. This study shows that a potent anti-oxidant treatment through FPP® may contribute to both preventing and inhibiting tumors growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: FPP®; tumor; prevention; adjuvant treatment; anti-oxidant effect FPP®; tumor; prevention; adjuvant treatment; anti-oxidant effect
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Logozzi, M.; Mizzoni, D.; Di Raimo, R.; Macchia, D.; Spada, M.; Fais, S. Oral Administration of Fermented Papaya (FPP®) Controls the Growth of a Murine Melanoma through the In Vivo Induction of a Natural Antioxidant Response. Cancers 2019, 11, 118.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top