Bone metastases are frequently the final fate of breast and prostate cancer patients. According to the definition of metastasis as an incurable disease, to date there are no effective treatments for tumor-associated bone metastases and this represents a real challenge for the researchers in the field. The bone is a heterogeneous environment that represents a fertile soil for tumor cells, supporting their growth. Among the different cell types present in the bone, in this review we will focus our attention on the osteoclasts, which are crucial players in the so called “vicious cycle”, a phenomenon triggered by tumor cells eventually leading to both tumor proliferation as well as bone deregulation, thus fueling the development of bone metastasis. The complex network, linking tumor cells to the bone by activating osteoclasts, represents a fruitful target for the treatment of bone metastases. In this review we will describe how tumor cells perturb the bone microenvironment by actively influencing osteoclast formation and activity. Moreover, we will describe the current antiresorptive drugs employed in the treatment of bone metastases as well as new, targeted therapies able to affect both cancer cells and osteoclasts.
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