Next Article in Journal
Regulation of Cancer Stem Cell Metabolism by Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 4 (sFRP4)
Next Article in Special Issue
Elevated Polyamines in Saliva of Pancreatic Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
Colorectal Cancer and Alcohol Consumption—Populations to Molecules
Previous Article in Special Issue
Targeted Therapies for Pancreatic Cancer
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Precision Immuno-Oncology: Prospects of Individualized Immunotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer

1
Departments of Oncology and Surgery, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
2
Bloomberg-Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
3
Pancreatic Cancer PMCoE Program, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2018, 10(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10020039
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Development in Pancreatic Cancer)
  |  
PDF [1244 KB, uploaded 30 January 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Pancreatic cancer, most commonly referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), remains one of the most deadly diseases, with very few effective therapies available. Emerging as a new modality of modern cancer treatments, immunotherapy has shown promises for various cancer types. Over the past decades, the potential of immunotherapy in eliciting clinical benefits in pancreatic cancer have also been extensively explored. It has been demonstrated in preclinical studies and early phase clinical trials that cancer vaccines were effective in eliciting anti-tumor immune response, but few have led to a significant improvement in survival. Despite the fact that immunotherapy with checkpoint blockade (e.g., anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 [CTLA-4] and anti-programmed cell death 1 [PD-1]/PD-L1 antibodies) has shown remarkable and durable responses in various cancer types, the application of checkpoint inhibitors in pancreatic cancer has been disappointing so far. It may, in part, due to the unique tumor microenvironment (TME) of pancreatic cancer, such as existence of excessive stromal matrix and hypovascularity, creating a TME of strong inhibitory signaling circuits and tremendous physical barriers for immune agent infiltration. This informs on the need for combination therapy approaches to engender a potent immune response that can translate to clinical benefits. On the other hand, lack of effective and validated biomarkers to stratify subgroup of patients who can benefit from immunotherapy poses further challenges for the realization of precision immune-oncology. Future studies addressing issues such as TME modulation, biomarker identification and therapeutic combination are warranted. In this review, advances in immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer were discussed and opportunities as well as challenges for personalized immune-oncology were addressed. View Full-Text
Keywords: pancreatic cancer; pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; precision medicine; immunotherapy; immune checkpoint; vaccine; tumor microenvironment pancreatic cancer; pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; precision medicine; immunotherapy; immune checkpoint; vaccine; tumor microenvironment
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, J.; Wolfgang, C.L.; Zheng, L. Precision Immuno-Oncology: Prospects of Individualized Immunotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer. Cancers 2018, 10, 39.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top