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Oncogenic Signalling through Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR): A Driver of Metabolic Transformation and Cancer Progression
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mTOR Pathways in Cancer and Autophagy

by Mathieu Paquette 1,2,†, Leeanna El-Houjeiri 1,2,† and Arnim Pause 1,2,*
1
Goodman Cancer Research Center, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 1A3, Canada
2
Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3G 1Y6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have contributed equally to this work.
Cancers 2018, 10(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10010018
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue mTOR Pathway in Cancer)
TOR (target of rapamycin), an evolutionarily-conserved serine/threonine kinase, acts as a central regulator of cell growth, proliferation and survival in response to nutritional status, growth factor, and stress signals. It plays a crucial role in coordinating the balance between cell growth and cell death, depending on cellular conditions and needs. As such, TOR has been identified as a key modulator of autophagy for more than a decade, and several deregulations of this pathway have been implicated in a variety of pathological disorders, including cancer. At the molecular level, autophagy regulates several survival or death signaling pathways that may decide the fate of cancer cells; however, the relationship between autophagy pathways and cancer are still nascent. In this review, we discuss the recent cellular signaling pathways regulated by TOR, their interconnections to autophagy, and the clinical implications of TOR inhibitors in cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: mTOR; autophagy; signaling; cancer mTOR; autophagy; signaling; cancer
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Paquette, M.; El-Houjeiri, L.; Pause, A. mTOR Pathways in Cancer and Autophagy. Cancers 2018, 10, 18.

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