Acceleration sensitivity in silicon bulk-extensional mode oscillators is studied in this work, and a correlation between the resonator alignment to different crystalline planes of silicon and the observed acceleration sensitivity is established. It is shown that the oscillator sensitivity to the applied vibration is significantly lower when the silicon-based lateral-extensional mode resonator is aligned to the <110> plane compared to when the same resonator is aligned to <100>. A finite element model is developed that is capable of predicting the resonance frequency variation when a distributed load (i.e., acceleration) is applied to the resonator. Using this model, the orientation-dependent nature of acceleration sensitivity is confirmed, and the effect of material nonlinearity on the acceleration sensitivity is also verified. A thin-film piezoelectric-on-substrate platform is chosen for the implementation of resonators. Approximately, one order of magnitude higher acceleration sensitivity is measured for oscillators built with a resonator aligned to the <100> plane versus those with a resonator aligned to the <110> plane (an average of ~5.66 × 10−8
(1/g) vs. ~3.66 × 10−9
(1/g), respectively, for resonators on a degenerately n-type doped silicon layer).
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