Untethered, controllable, mobile microrobots have been proposed for numerous applications, ranging from micro-manipulation, in vitro tasks (e.g., operation of microscale biological substances) to in vivo applications (e.g., targeted drug delivery; brachytherapy; hyperthermia, etc.), due to their small-scale dimensions and accessibility to tiny and complex environments. Researchers have used different magnetic actuation systems allowing custom-designed workspace and multiple degrees of freedom (DoF) to actuate microrobots with various motion control methods from open-loop pre-programmed control to closed-loop path-following control. This article provides an overview of the magnetic actuation systems and the magnetic actuation-based control methods for microrobots. An overall benchmark on the magnetic actuation system and control method is also discussed according to the applications of microrobots.
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