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Review

Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Monitoring Chemoresistance of Cancer Cells

1
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
2
Sue & Bill Gross Stem Cell Research Center, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23668, USA
4
Department of Chemical Engineering, Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23668, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Micromachines 2020, 11(9), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11090832
Received: 31 July 2020 / Revised: 28 August 2020 / Accepted: 29 August 2020 / Published: 31 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidic Devices for Biosensing)
Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is an electrokinetic method that allows for the characterization of intrinsic dielectric properties of cells. EIS has emerged in the last decade as a promising method for the characterization of cancerous cells, providing information on inductance, capacitance, and impedance of cells. The individual cell behavior can be quantified using its characteristic phase angle, amplitude, and frequency measurements obtained by fitting the input frequency-dependent cellular response to a resistor–capacitor circuit model. These electrical properties will provide important information about unique biomarkers related to the behavior of these cancerous cells, especially monitoring their chemoresistivity and sensitivity to chemotherapeutics. There are currently few methods to assess drug resistant cancer cells, and therefore it is difficult to identify and eliminate drug-resistant cancer cells found in static and metastatic tumors. Establishing techniques for the real-time monitoring of changes in cancer cell phenotypes is, therefore, important for understanding cancer cell dynamics and their plastic properties. EIS can be used to monitor these changes. In this review, we will cover the theory behind EIS, other impedance techniques, and how EIS can be used to monitor cell behavior and phenotype changes within cancerous cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrical impedance spectroscopy; dielectrophoresis; impedance; capacitance; microfluidics; electrokinetics; cell phenotype; cancer cells electrical impedance spectroscopy; dielectrophoresis; impedance; capacitance; microfluidics; electrokinetics; cell phenotype; cancer cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Crowell, L.L.; Yakisich, J.S.; Aufderheide, B.; Adams, T.N.G. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Monitoring Chemoresistance of Cancer Cells. Micromachines 2020, 11, 832. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11090832

AMA Style

Crowell LL, Yakisich JS, Aufderheide B, Adams TNG. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Monitoring Chemoresistance of Cancer Cells. Micromachines. 2020; 11(9):832. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11090832

Chicago/Turabian Style

Crowell, Lexi L., Juan S. Yakisich, Brian Aufderheide, and Tayloria N.G. Adams 2020. "Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Monitoring Chemoresistance of Cancer Cells" Micromachines 11, no. 9: 832. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11090832

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