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Open AccessArticle

An Immunosensor for the Detection of ULBP2 Biomarker

1
Department of Pathology, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua City 500, Taiwan
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Nantou County 545, Taiwan
3
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan
4
Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, University of Science (Vietnam National University of Hochiminh City), Hochiminh City 700000, Vietnam
5
School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan
6
National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Tainan 70456, Taiwan
7
Department of Surgery, Taichung Armed Forces General Hospital, Taichung City 41152, Taiwan
8
Research Assistant Center, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua City 500, Taiwan
9
Department of Medical Research, Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 505, Taiwan
10
Department of Photonics and Communication Engineering, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
11
Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Micromachines 2020, 11(6), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11060568
Received: 4 May 2020 / Revised: 29 May 2020 / Accepted: 1 June 2020 / Published: 3 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Nanomaterial-Based Chem/Bio Sensors)
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a global health problem that features a very high mortality rate. The UL16 binding protein 2 (ULBP2) is a new biomarker for PC detection. This study develops a simple, reliable, and inexpensive immunosensor for the detection of the ULBP2 antigen while also investigating the effects of an array configuration of connected sensors and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on the immunosensor’s sensitivity. The ULBP2 antibody was immobilized onto the screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) surfaces of three different sensors: a simple SPCE (ULBP2-SPCE); an SPCE array, which is a series of identical SPCE connected to each other at different arrangements of rows and columns (ULBP2-SPCE-1x2 and ULBP2-SPCE-1x3); and an SPCE combined with ZnO nanoparticles (ULBP2-ZnO/SPCE). Impedance spectrum measurements for the immunosensors to ULBP2 antigen were conducted and compared. According to the result, the array configurations (ULBP2-SPCE-1x2 and ULBP2-SPCE-1x3) show an improvement of sensitivity compared to the ULBP2-SPCE alone, but the improvement is not as significant as that of the ULBP2-ZnO/SPCE configuration (ULBP2-ZnO/SPCE > ULBP2-SPCE: 18 times larger). The ULBP2-ZnO/SPCE immunosensor has a low limit of detection (1 pg/mL) and a high sensitivity (332.2 Ω/Log(pg/mL)), excellent linearity (R2 = 0.98), good repeatability (coefficients of variation = 5.03%), and is stable in long-term storage (retaining 95% activity after 28 days storage). In an array configuration, the immunosensor has an increased signal-to-noise ratio (ULBP2-SPCE-1x3 > ULBP2-SPCE: 1.5-fold) and sensitivity (ULBP2-SPCE-1x3 > ULBP2-SPCE: 2.6-fold). In conclusion, either the modification with ZnO nanoparticles onto the sensor or the use of an array configuration of sensors can enhance the immunosensor’s sensitivity. In this study, the best immunosensor for detecting ULBP2 antigens is the ULBP2-ZnO/SPCE immunosensor. View Full-Text
Keywords: pancreatic cancer; ULBP2; screen-printed; immunosensor; nanoparticles; array configuration pancreatic cancer; ULBP2; screen-printed; immunosensor; nanoparticles; array configuration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, W.-C.; Liao, S.-Y.; Phan, T.L.; Van Hieu, N.; Chu, P.-Y.; Yi, C.-C.; Wu, H.-J.; Chang, K.-M.; Ching, C. .-S. An Immunosensor for the Detection of ULBP2 Biomarker. Micromachines 2020, 11, 568.

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