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Structuring of Bioceramics by Micro-Grinding for Dental Implant Applications

Laboratory for Precision Machining (LFM), Leibniz Institute for Materials Engineering (IWT), MAPEX Center for Materials and Processes, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Micromachines 2019, 10(5), 312;
Received: 13 April 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 1 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Product/Process Fingerprint in Micro Manufacturing)
PDF [4668 KB, uploaded 9 May 2019]
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Metallic implants were the only option for both medical and dental applications for decades. However, it has been reported that patients with metal implants can show allergic reactions. Consequently, technical ceramics have become an accessible material alternative due to their combination of biocompatibility and mechanical properties. Despite the recent developments in ductile mode machining, the micro-grinding of bioceramics can cause insufficient surface and subsurface integrity due to the inherent hardness and brittleness of these materials. This work aims to determine the influence on the surface and subsurface damage (SSD) of zirconia-based ceramics ground with diamond wheels of 10 mm diameter with a diamond grain size (dg) of 75 μm within eight grinding operations using a variation of the machining parameters, i.e., peripheral speed (vc), feed speed (vf), and depth of cut (ae). In this regard, dental thread structures were machined on fully sintered zirconia (ZrO2), alumina toughened zirconia (ATZ), and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) bioceramics. The ground workpieces were analysed through a scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and white light interferometry (WLI) to evaluate the microstructure, residual stresses, and surface roughness, respectively. Moreover, the grinding processes were monitored through forces measurement. Based on the machining parameters tested, the results showed that low peripheral speed (vc) and low depth of cut (ae) were the main conditions investigated to achieve the optimum surface integrity and the desired low grinding forces. Finally, the methodology proposed to investigate the surface integrity of the ground workpieces was helpful to understand the zirconia-based ceramics response under micro-grinding processes, as well as to set further machining parameters for dental implant threads. View Full-Text
Keywords: micro-grinding; bioceramics; materials characterisation; dental implant micro-grinding; bioceramics; materials characterisation; dental implant

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Fook, P.; Berger, D.; Riemer, O.; Karpuschewski, B. Structuring of Bioceramics by Micro-Grinding for Dental Implant Applications. Micromachines 2019, 10, 312.

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