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Micromachines 2019, 10(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10010062

Progress in the Field of Micro-Electrocorticography

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
2
Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53792, USA
3
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
4
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 02504, South Korea
5
Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53792, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 9 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neural Microelectrodes: Design and Applications)
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Abstract

Since the 1940s electrocorticography (ECoG) devices and, more recently, in the last decade, micro-electrocorticography (µECoG) cortical electrode arrays were used for a wide set of experimental and clinical applications, such as epilepsy localization and brain–computer interface (BCI) technologies. Miniaturized implantable µECoG devices have the advantage of providing greater-density neural signal acquisition and stimulation capabilities in a minimally invasive fashion. An increased spatial resolution of the µECoG array will be useful for greater specificity diagnosis and treatment of neuronal diseases and the advancement of basic neuroscience and BCI research. In this review, recent achievements of ECoG and µECoG are discussed. The electrode configurations and varying material choices used to design µECoG arrays are discussed, including advantages and disadvantages of µECoG technology compared to electroencephalography (EEG), ECoG, and intracortical electrode arrays. Electrode materials that are the primary focus include platinum, iridium oxide, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), indium tin oxide (ITO), and graphene. We discuss the biological immune response to µECoG devices compared to other electrode array types, the role of µECoG in clinical pathology, and brain–computer interface technology. The information presented in this review will be helpful to understand the current status, organize available knowledge, and guide future clinical and research applications of µECoG technologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrocorticography; ECoG; micro-electrocorticography; µECoG; neural electrode array; neural interfaces; electrophysiology; brain–computer interface; in vivo imaging; tissue response; graphene electrocorticography; ECoG; micro-electrocorticography; µECoG; neural electrode array; neural interfaces; electrophysiology; brain–computer interface; in vivo imaging; tissue response; graphene
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Shokoueinejad, M.; Park, D.-W.; Jung, Y.H.; Brodnick, S.K.; Novello, J.; Dingle, A.; Swanson, K.I.; Baek, D.-H.; Suminski, A.J.; Lake, W.B.; Ma, Z.; Williams, J. Progress in the Field of Micro-Electrocorticography. Micromachines 2019, 10, 62.

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