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Toxins 2017, 9(9), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9090261

Orally Delivered Scorpion Antimicrobial Peptides Exhibit Activity against Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and Its Bacterial Symbionts

1
Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Bioresources Project Group, Winchesterstrasse 2, 35394 Giessen, Germany
2
Institute for Insect Biotechnology, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, 35392 Giessen, Germany
These two authors contribute equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lourival D. Possani
Received: 4 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3239 KB, uploaded 24 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

Aphids are severe agricultural pests that damage crops by feeding on phloem sap and vectoring plant pathogens. Chemical insecticides provide an important aphid control strategy, but alternative and sustainable control measures are required to avoid rapidly emerging resistance, environmental contamination, and the risk to humans and beneficial organisms. Aphids are dependent on bacterial symbionts, which enable them to survive on phloem sap lacking essential nutrients, as well as conferring environmental stress tolerance and resistance to parasites. The evolution of aphids has been accompanied by the loss of many immunity-related genes, such as those encoding antibacterial peptides, which are prevalent in other insects, probably because any harm to the bacterial symbionts would inevitably affect the aphids themselves. This suggests that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could replace or at least complement conventional insecticides for aphid control. We fed the pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) with AMPs from the venom glands of scorpions. The AMPs reduced aphid survival, delayed their reproduction, displayed in vitro activity against aphid bacterial symbionts, and reduced the number of symbionts in vivo. Remarkably, we found that some of the scorpion AMPs compromised the aphid bacteriome, a specialized organ that harbours bacterial symbionts. Our data suggest that scorpion AMPs holds the potential to be developed as bio-insecticides, and are promising candidates for the engineering of aphid-resistant crops. View Full-Text
Keywords: Acyrthosiphon pisum; scorpion toxins; symbiosis; antimicrobial peptides Acyrthosiphon pisum; scorpion toxins; symbiosis; antimicrobial peptides
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Luna-Ramirez, K.; Skaljac, M.; Grotmann, J.; Kirfel, P.; Vilcinskas, A. Orally Delivered Scorpion Antimicrobial Peptides Exhibit Activity against Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and Its Bacterial Symbionts. Toxins 2017, 9, 261.

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