Next Article in Journal
Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Penicillium citrinum Cultured with Different Carbon Sources Identifies Genes Involved in Citrinin Biosynthesis
Previous Article in Journal
Static Hot Air and Infrared Rays Roasting are Efficient Methods for Aflatoxin Decontamination on Hazelnuts
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2017, 9(2), 53;

Toxin Release of Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa after Exposure to Typical Tetracycline Antibiotic Contaminants

School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418, China
Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South) of Ministry of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miquel Lürling
Received: 9 November 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1197 KB, uploaded 21 February 2017]   |  


The global usage of veterinary antibiotics is significant. Antibiotics can be released into aquatic environments and elicit toxic effects on non-target organisms. In this study, the growth characteristics and toxin release of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) were examined to investigate the physiological effects of tetracycline antibiotics on aquatic life. Results showed that the degree of toxicities of the following target antibiotics was TC (tetracycline hydrochloride) > CTC (chlortetracycline hydrochloride) > OTC (oxytetracycline hydrochloride) in terms of growth parameters, EC10 (0.63, 1.86, and 3.02 mg/L, respectively), and EC20 (1.58, 4.09, and 4.86 mg/L, respectively) values. These antibiotics inhibited the production of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) to varying degrees. CTC interfered M. aeruginosa cells and decreased their ability to release MC-LR, but this antibiotic stimulated the ability of these cells to synthesize MC-LR at 2 and 5 mg/L. OTC elicited a relatively weaker toxicity than CTC did and reduced MC-LR release. TC was the most toxic among the three antibiotics, and this antibiotic simultaneously reduced intracellular and extracellular MC-LR equivalents. Our results helped elucidate the effects of tetracycline antibiotics on M. aeruginosa, which is essential for environmental evaluation and protection. Our results are also helpful for guiding the application of veterinary antibiotics in agricultural settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: toxin release; blue-green algae; tetracycline antibiotics; environmental toxicology toxin release; blue-green algae; tetracycline antibiotics; environmental toxicology

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ye, J.; Du, Y.; Wang, L.; Qian, J.; Chen, J.; Wu, Q.; Hu, X. Toxin Release of Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa after Exposure to Typical Tetracycline Antibiotic Contaminants. Toxins 2017, 9, 53.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top