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Toxins 2016, 8(8), 234;

Putative Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase and Cytochrome P450 Genes Responsible for Tentoxin Biosynthesis in Alternaria alternata ZJ33

Beijing Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Research and Development, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China
Key Laboratory of Ethnic Medicine Resource Chemistry, State Ethnic Affairs Commission & Ministry of Education, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming 650500, China
CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jiujiang Yu
Received: 25 May 2016 / Revised: 3 July 2016 / Accepted: 27 July 2016 / Published: 2 August 2016
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Tentoxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide produced by several Alternaria species, inhibits the F1-ATPase activity of chloroplasts, resulting in chlorosis in sensitive plants. In this study, we report two clustered genes, encoding a putative non-ribosome peptide synthetase (NRPS) TES and a cytochrome P450 protein TES1, that are required for tentoxin biosynthesis in Alternaria alternata strain ZJ33, which was isolated from blighted leaves of Eupatorium adenophorum. Using a pair of primers designed according to the consensus sequences of the adenylation domain of NRPSs, two fragments containing putative adenylation domains were amplified from A. alternata ZJ33, and subsequent PCR analyses demonstrated that these fragments belonged to the same NRPS coding sequence. With no introns, TES consists of a single 15,486 base pair open reading frame encoding a predicted 5161 amino acid protein. Meanwhile, the TES1 gene is predicted to contain five introns and encode a 506 amino acid protein. The TES protein is predicted to be comprised of four peptide synthase modules with two additional N-methylation domains, and the number and arrangement of the modules in TES were consistent with the number and arrangement of the amino acid residues of tentoxin, respectively. Notably, both TES and TES1 null mutants generated via homologous recombination failed to produce tentoxin. This study provides the first evidence concerning the biosynthesis of tentoxin in A. alternata. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alternaria alternata; tentoxin; nonribosome peptide synthetase; cytochrome P450 Alternaria alternata; tentoxin; nonribosome peptide synthetase; cytochrome P450

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Li, Y.-H.; Han, W.-J.; Gui, X.-W.; Wei, T.; Tang, S.-Y.; Jin, J.-M. Putative Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase and Cytochrome P450 Genes Responsible for Tentoxin Biosynthesis in Alternaria alternata ZJ33. Toxins 2016, 8, 234.

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