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Toxins 2016, 8(8), 235;

A Rapid Assay to Detect Toxigenic Penicillium spp. Contamination in Wine and Musts

Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e degli Alimenti, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Via G. Amendola 165/A, 70126 Bari, Italy
Sinagri s.rl. Spin-off, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Via G. Amendola 165/A, 70126 Bari, Italy
Agro.Biolab Laboratory s.r.l., SP240 km 13,800, 70018 Rutigliano (BA), Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Battilani
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 8 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
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Wine and fermenting musts are grape products widely consumed worldwide. Since the presence of mycotoxin-producing fungi may greatly compromise their quality characteristics and safety, there is an increasing need for relatively rapid “user friendly” quantitative assays to detect fungal contamination both in grapes delivered to wineries and in final products. Although other fungi are most frequently involved in grape deterioration, secondary infections by Penicillium spp. are quite common, especially in cool areas with high humidity and in wines obtained by partially dried grapes. In this work, a single-tube nested real-time PCR approach—successfully applied to hazelnut and peanut allergen detection—was tested for the first time to trace Penicillium spp. in musts and wines. The method consisted of two sets of primers specifically designed to target the β-tubulin gene, to be simultaneously applied with the aim of lowering the detection limit of conventional real-time PCR. The assay was able to detect up to 1 fg of Penicillium DNA. As confirmation, patulin content of representative samples was determined. Most of analyzed wines/musts returned contaminated results at >50 ppb and a 76% accordance with molecular assay was observed. Although further large-scale trials are needed, these results encourage the use of the newly developed method in the pre-screening of fresh and processed grapes for the presence of Penicillium DNA before the evaluation of related toxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: grape; Penicillium detection; mycotoxins; food safety grape; Penicillium detection; mycotoxins; food safety

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sanzani, S.M.; Miazzi, M.M.; di Rienzo, V.; Fanelli, V.; Gambacorta, G.; Taurino, M.R.; Montemurro, C. A Rapid Assay to Detect Toxigenic Penicillium spp. Contamination in Wine and Musts. Toxins 2016, 8, 235.

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