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Toxins 2016, 8(11), 346;

Integrating scFv into xMAP Assays for the Detection of Marine Toxins

U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, DC 20375, USA
Nova Research Inc., 1900 Elkin St., Suite 230, Alexandria, VA 22308, USA
Chair of Hygiene and Technology of Milk, LMU München, Schönleutnerstraße 8/219, 85764 Oberschleißheim, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Luis M. Botana
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 21 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
PDF [2817 KB, uploaded 21 November 2016]


Marine toxins, such as saxitoxin and domoic acid are associated with algae blooms and can bioaccumulate in shell fish which present both health and economic concerns. The ability to detect the presence of toxin is paramount for the administration of the correct supportive care in case of intoxication; environmental monitoring to detect the presence of toxin is also important for prevention of intoxication. Immunoassays are one tool that has successfully been applied to the detection of marine toxins. Herein, we had the variable regions of two saxitoxin binding monoclonal antibodies sequenced and used the information to produce recombinant constructs that consist of linked heavy and light variable domains that make up the binding domains of the antibodies (scFv). Recombinantly produced binding elements such as scFv provide an alternative to traditional antibodies and serve to “preserve” monoclonal antibodies as they can be easily recreated from their sequence data. In this paper, we combined the anti-saxitoxin scFv developed here with a previously developed anti-domoic acid scFv and demonstrated their utility in a microsphere-based competitive immunoassay format. In addition to detection in buffer, we demonstrated equivalent sensitivity in oyster and scallop matrices. The potential for multiplexed detection using scFvs in this immunoassay format is demonstrated. View Full-Text
Keywords: saxitoxin; domoic acid; single chain antibody; xMAP saxitoxin; domoic acid; single chain antibody; xMAP

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Shriver-Lake, L.C.; Liu, J.L.; Brozozog Lee, P.A.; Goldman, E.R.; Dietrich, R.; Märtlbauer, E.; Anderson, G.P. Integrating scFv into xMAP Assays for the Detection of Marine Toxins. Toxins 2016, 8, 346.

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