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Toxins 2016, 8(10), 286;

A Combinational Strategy upon RNA Sequencing and Peptidomics Unravels a Set of Novel Toxin Peptides in Scorpion Mesobuthus martensii

1,4,5,6,* , 2,3,* and 4,5,6,*
Life Sciences College of Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, China
BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China
China National GeneBank-Shenzhen, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518083, China
Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of Chinese Academy of Sciences & Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Kunming 650223, Yunnan, China
United Laboratory of Natural Peptide of University of Science and Technology of China & Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Science, Kunming 650223, Yunnan, China
Sino-African Joint Research Center, Chinese Academy of Science, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, China
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 21 September 2016 / Published: 5 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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Scorpion venom is deemed to contain many toxic peptides as an important source of natural compounds. Out of the two hundred proteins identified in Mesobuthus martensii (M. martensii), only a few peptide toxins have been found so far. Herein, a combinational approach based upon RNA sequencing and Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS) was employed to explore the venom peptides in M. martensii. A total of 153 proteins were identified from the scorpion venom, 26 previously known and 127 newly identified. Of the novel toxins, 97 proteins exhibited sequence similarities to known toxins, and 30 were never reported. Combining peptidomic and transcriptomic analyses, the peptide sequence of BmKKx1 was reannotated and four disulfide bridges were confirmed within it. In light of the comparison of conservation and variety of toxin amino acid sequences, highly conserved and variable regions were perceived in 24 toxins that were parts of two sodium channel and two potassium channel toxins families. Taking all of this evidences together, the peptidomic analysis on M. martensii indeed identified numerous novel scorpion peptides, expanded our knowledge towards the venom diversity, and afforded a set of pharmaceutical candidates. View Full-Text
Keywords: scorpion; peptidomics; toxins; diversity scorpion; peptidomics; toxins; diversity

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Luan, N.; Shen, W.; Liu, J.; Wen, B.; Lin, Z.; Yang, S.; Lai, R.; Liu, S.; Rong, M. A Combinational Strategy upon RNA Sequencing and Peptidomics Unravels a Set of Novel Toxin Peptides in Scorpion Mesobuthus martensii. Toxins 2016, 8, 286.

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