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Toxins 2013, 5(11), 2281-2292; doi:10.3390/toxins5112281
Article

The Expression of Type-1 and Type-2 Nitric Oxide Synthase in Selected Tissues of the Gastrointestinal Tract during Mixed Mycotoxicosis

1,* , 2
,
3
,
1
 and
1
1 Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, ul. Oczapowskiego 13/29, Olsztyn 10-718, Poland 2 Veterinary Clinic, Ewa Stopa DVM, ul. Dąbrowskiego 15, Iława 14-200, Poland 3 BIOMIN Polska Sp. z o.o., ul. Grochowska 16, Warszawa 04-217, Poland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2013 / Revised: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 18 November 2013 / Published: 22 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis that intoxication with low doses of mycotoxins leads to changes in the mRNA expression levels of nitric oxide synthase-1 and nitric oxide synthase-2 genes in tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and the liver. The experiment involved four groups of immature gilts (with body weight of up to 25 kg) which were orally administered zearalenone in a daily dose of 40 μg/kg BW (group Z, n = 18), deoxynivalenol at 12 μg/kg BW (group D, n = 18), zearalenone and deoxynivalenol (group M, n = 18) or placebo (group C, n = 21) over a period of 42 days. The lowest mRNA expression levels of nitric oxide synthase-1 and nitric oxide synthase-2 genes were noted in the sixth week of the study, in particular in group M. Our results suggest that the presence of low mycotoxin doses in feed slows down the mRNA expression of both nitric oxide synthase isomers, which probably lowers the concentrations of nitric oxide, a common precursor of inflammation.
Keywords: mycotoxins; low doses; zearalenone; deoxynivalenol; gene expression; nitric oxide synthases mycotoxins; low doses; zearalenone; deoxynivalenol; gene expression; nitric oxide synthases
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Gajęcka, M.; Stopa, E.; Tarasiuk, M.; Zielonka, Ł.; Gajęcki, M. The Expression of Type-1 and Type-2 Nitric Oxide Synthase in Selected Tissues of the Gastrointestinal Tract during Mixed Mycotoxicosis. Toxins 2013, 5, 2281-2292.

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