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Article

Trial Assay for Safe First-Aid Protocol for the Stinging Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) and a Severe Toxic Reaction

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ICM-CSIC-Institute of Marine Sciences, Department of Marine Biology and Oceanography, Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
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IMEDMAR-UCV-Institute of Environment and Marine Science Research, Universidad Católica de Valencia SVM, C. Explanada del Puerto S/n, Calp, 03710 Alicante, Spain
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ISDIN, Innovation and Development, C. Provençals 33, 08019 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2022, 14(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14010027
Received: 6 December 2021 / Revised: 25 December 2021 / Accepted: 27 December 2021 / Published: 1 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cnidarian Venom)
Anemonia viridis is an abundant and widely distributed temperate sea anemone that can form dense congregations of individuals. Despite the potential severity of its sting, few detailed cases have been reported. We report a case of a severe toxic reaction following an A. viridis sting in a 35-year-old oceanographer. She developed severe pain, itching, redness, and burning sensation, which worsened one week after treatment with anti-inflammatories, antihistamines and corticosteroids. Prompted by this event, and due to the insufficient risk prevention, lack of training for marine-environment users, and lack of research into sting-specific first-aid protocols, we evaluated the cnidocyst response to five different compounds commonly recommended as rinse solutions in first-aid protocols (seawater, vinegar, ammonia, baking soda, and freshwater) by means of the Tentacle Solution Assay. Vinegar and ammonia triggered an immediate and massive cnidocyst discharge after their application and were classified as activator solutions. Baking soda and freshwater were also classified as activator solutions, although with a lower intensity of discharge. Only seawater was classified as a neutral solution and therefore recommended as a rinse solution after A. viridis sting, at least until an inhibitory solution is discovered. View Full-Text
Keywords: cnidarian venom; cnidocyst discharge; cnidocyte; marine knowledge; risk prevention; seawater; sting; vinegar cnidarian venom; cnidocyst discharge; cnidocyte; marine knowledge; risk prevention; seawater; sting; vinegar
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ballesteros, A.; Salazar, J.; Marambio, M.; Tena, J.; García-March, J.R.; López, D.; Tellez, C.; Trullas, C.; Jourdan, E.; Granger, C.; Gili, J.-M. Trial Assay for Safe First-Aid Protocol for the Stinging Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) and a Severe Toxic Reaction. Toxins 2022, 14, 27. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14010027

AMA Style

Ballesteros A, Salazar J, Marambio M, Tena J, García-March JR, López D, Tellez C, Trullas C, Jourdan E, Granger C, Gili J-M. Trial Assay for Safe First-Aid Protocol for the Stinging Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) and a Severe Toxic Reaction. Toxins. 2022; 14(1):27. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14010027

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ballesteros, Ainara, Janire Salazar, Macarena Marambio, José Tena, José R. García-March, Diana López, Clara Tellez, Carles Trullas, Eric Jourdan, Corinne Granger, and Josep-Maria Gili. 2022. "Trial Assay for Safe First-Aid Protocol for the Stinging Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) and a Severe Toxic Reaction" Toxins 14, no. 1: 27. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14010027

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