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Article

Mycotoxins, Phytoestrogens and Other Secondary Metabolites in Austrian Pastures: Occurrences, Contamination Levels and Implications of Geo-Climatic Factors

1
Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria
2
BIOMIN Research Center, Technopark 1, 3430 Tulln, Austria
3
Department IFA-Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Konrad Lorenzstrasse 20, 3430 Tulln, Austria
4
Christian-Doppler-Laboratory for Innovative Gut Health Concepts in Livestock (CDL-LiveGUT), Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(7), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13070460
Received: 26 May 2021 / Revised: 28 June 2021 / Accepted: 29 June 2021 / Published: 30 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Stress on the Production of Mycotoxins)
Pastures are key feed sources for dairy production and can be contaminated with several secondary metabolites from fungi and plants with toxic or endocrine-disrupting activities, which possess a risk for the health, reproduction and performance of cattle. This exploratory study aimed to determine the co-occurrences and concentrations of a wide range of mycotoxins, phytoestrogens and other secondary metabolites in grazing pastures. Representative samples of pastures were collected from 18 Austrian dairy farms (one sample per farm) between April to October 2019. After sample preparation (drying and milling) the pastures were subjected to multi-metabolite analysis using LC-MS/MS. In total, 68 metabolites were detected, including regulated zearalenone and deoxynivalenol (range: 2.16–138 and 107–505 μg/kg on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively), modified (3-deoxynivalenol-glucoside, HT-2-glucoside) and emerging Fusarium mycotoxins (e.g., enniatins), ergot alkaloids and Alternaria metabolites along with phytoestrogens and other metabolites. Aflatoxins, fumonisins, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin and ochratoxins were not detected. Of the geo-climatic factors and botanical diversity investigated, the environment temperature (average of 2 pre-sampling months and the sampling month) was the most influential factor. The number of fungal metabolites linearly increased with increasing temperatures and temperatures exceeding 15 °C triggered an exponential increment in the concentrations of Fusarium and Alternaria metabolites and ergot alkaloids. In conclusion, even though the levels of regulated mycotoxins detected were below the EU guidance levels, the long-term exposure along with co-occurrence with modified and emerging mycotoxins might be an underestimated risk for grazing and forage-fed livestock. The one-year preliminary data points out a dominant effect of environmental temperature in the diversity and contamination level of fungal metabolites in pastures. View Full-Text
Keywords: pasture; mycotoxin; fungal metabolite; phytoestrogen; cyanogenic glucoside; ergot alkaloid; temperature; dairy cattle pasture; mycotoxin; fungal metabolite; phytoestrogen; cyanogenic glucoside; ergot alkaloid; temperature; dairy cattle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Penagos-Tabares, F.; Khiaosa-ard, R.; Nagl, V.; Faas, J.; Jenkins, T.; Sulyok, M.; Zebeli, Q. Mycotoxins, Phytoestrogens and Other Secondary Metabolites in Austrian Pastures: Occurrences, Contamination Levels and Implications of Geo-Climatic Factors. Toxins 2021, 13, 460. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13070460

AMA Style

Penagos-Tabares F, Khiaosa-ard R, Nagl V, Faas J, Jenkins T, Sulyok M, Zebeli Q. Mycotoxins, Phytoestrogens and Other Secondary Metabolites in Austrian Pastures: Occurrences, Contamination Levels and Implications of Geo-Climatic Factors. Toxins. 2021; 13(7):460. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13070460

Chicago/Turabian Style

Penagos-Tabares, Felipe, Ratchaneewan Khiaosa-ard, Veronika Nagl, Johannes Faas, Timothy Jenkins, Michael Sulyok, and Qendrim Zebeli. 2021. "Mycotoxins, Phytoestrogens and Other Secondary Metabolites in Austrian Pastures: Occurrences, Contamination Levels and Implications of Geo-Climatic Factors" Toxins 13, no. 7: 460. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13070460

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