Next Article in Journal
Botulinum Toxin A and Osteosarcopenia in Experimental Animals: A Scoping Review
Next Article in Special Issue
New Insights into the Potential Cytotoxic Role of Bacillus cytotoxicus Cytotoxin K-1
Previous Article in Journal
Comparison of Preclinical Properties of Several Available Antivenoms in the Search for Effective Treatment of Vipera ammodytes and Vipera berus Envenoming
Article

Occurrence and Toxicogenetic Profiling of Clostridium perfringens in Buffalo and Cattle: An Update from Pakistan

1
State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, China
2
Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for the Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Disease and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
3
Key Laboratory of Agro-products Quality and Safety Control in Storage and Transport Process, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/ Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
4
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
5
Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
6
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Outfall Road, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
7
Veterinary Research Institute, Zarrar Shaheed Road, Lahore Cantt., Lahore 54810, Pakistan
8
Department of Livestock and Dairy Development, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equally contributed as the first author.
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030212
Received: 9 February 2021 / Revised: 7 March 2021 / Accepted: 11 March 2021 / Published: 13 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Microbial Toxins on Animal Health and Food Safety)
Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive bacterium that possess seven toxinotypes (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G) that are responsible for the production of six major toxins, i.e., α, β, ε, ι, CPE, and NetB. The aim of this study is to find out the occurrence of toxinotypes in buffalo and cattle of Punjab province in Pakistan and their corresponding toxin-encoding genes from the isolated toxinotypes. To accomplish this aim, six districts in Punjab province were selected (i.e., Lahore, Sahiwal, Cheecha Watni, Bhakkar, Dera Ghazi Khan, and Bahawalpur) and a total of 240 buffalo and 240 cattle were selected for the collection of samples. From isolation and molecular analysis (16S rRNA), it was observed that out of seven toxinotypes (A–G), two toxinotypes (A and D) were found at most, whereas other toxinotypes, i.e., B, C, E, F, and G, were not found. The most frequently occurring toxinotype was type A (buffalo: 149/240; cattle: 157/240) whereas type D (buffalo: 8/240 cattle: 7/240) was found to occur the least. Genes encoding toxinotypes A and D were cpa and etx, respectively, whereas genes encoding other toxinotypes were not observed. The occurrence of isolated toxinotypes was studied using response surface methodology, which suggested a considerable occurrence of the isolated toxinotypes (A and D) in both buffalo and cattle. Association between type A and type D was found to be significant among the isolated toxinotypes in both buffalo and cattle (p ≤ 0.05). Correlation was also found to be positive and significant between type A and type D. C. perfringens exhibits a range of toxinotypes that can be diagnosed via genotyping, which is more reliable than classical toxinotyping. View Full-Text
Keywords: Clostridium perfringens; toxins; genotypes; occurrence; optimization Clostridium perfringens; toxins; genotypes; occurrence; optimization
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, M.U.Z.; Humza, M.; Yang, S.; Alvi, M.A.; Iqbal, M.Z.; Zain-ul-Fatima, H.; Khalid, S.; Munir, T.; Cai, J. Occurrence and Toxicogenetic Profiling of Clostridium perfringens in Buffalo and Cattle: An Update from Pakistan. Toxins 2021, 13, 212. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030212

AMA Style

Khan MUZ, Humza M, Yang S, Alvi MA, Iqbal MZ, Zain-ul-Fatima H, Khalid S, Munir T, Cai J. Occurrence and Toxicogenetic Profiling of Clostridium perfringens in Buffalo and Cattle: An Update from Pakistan. Toxins. 2021; 13(3):212. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030212

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Muhammad U.Z., Muhammad Humza, Shunli Yang, Mughees A. Alvi, Muhammad Z. Iqbal, Hafiza Zain-ul-Fatima, Shumaila Khalid, Tahir Munir, and Jianping Cai. 2021. "Occurrence and Toxicogenetic Profiling of Clostridium perfringens in Buffalo and Cattle: An Update from Pakistan" Toxins 13, no. 3: 212. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030212

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop