Next Article in Journal
Using On-Farm Monitoring of Ergovaline and Tall Fescue Composition for Horse Pasture Management
Next Article in Special Issue
Efficacy of Bottle Gourd Seeds’ Extracts in Chemical Hazard Reduction Secreted as Toxigenic Fungi Metabolites
Previous Article in Journal
Natural Occurrence of Alternaria Fungi and Associated Mycotoxins in Small-Grain Cereals from The Urals and West Siberia Regions of Russia
Previous Article in Special Issue
Mycotoxin Co-Occurrence in Milks and Exposure Estimation: A Pilot Study in São Paulo, Brazil
Review

Mycotoxins in Pistachios (Pistacia vera L.): Methods for Determination, Occurrence, Decontamination

1
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Stª Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
2
National Institute for Agricultural and Veterinary Research (INIAV), I.P., Rua dos Lagidos, Lugar da Madalena, 4485-655 Vila do Conde, Portugal
3
LAQV, REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Bromatology and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Stª Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
4
Center for Study in Animal Science (CECA), ICETA, University of Oporto, 55142 Oporto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(10), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13100682
Received: 30 June 2021 / Revised: 15 September 2021 / Accepted: 17 September 2021 / Published: 25 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Contamination and Food Safety)
The consumption of pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) has been increasing, given their important benefit to human health. In addition to being an excellent nutritional source, they have been associated with chemical hazards, such as mycotoxins, resulting in fungal contamination and its secondary metabolism. Aflatoxins (AFs) are the most common mycotoxins in pistachio and the most toxic to humans, with hepatotoxic effects. More mycotoxins such as ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FBs), zearalenone (ZEA) and trichothecenes (T2, HT2 and DON) and emerging mycotoxins have been involved in nuts. Because of the low levels of concentration and the complexity of the matrix, the determination techniques must be very sensitive. The present paper carries out an extensive review of the state of the art of the determination of mycotoxins in pistachios, concerning the trends in analytical methodologies for their determination and the levels detected as a result of its contamination. Screening methods based on immunoassays are useful due to their simplicity and rapid response. Liquid chromatography (LC) is the gold standard with new improvements to enhance accuracy, precision and sensitivity and a lower detection limit. The reduction of Aspergillus’ and aflatoxins’ contamination is important to minimize the public health risks. While prevention, mostly in pre-harvest, is the most effective and preferable measure to avoid mycotoxin contamination, there is an increased number of decontamination processes which will also be addressed in this review. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; aflatoxins; pistachios; Pistacia vera L.; determination; analytical methods; occurrence; decontamination mycotoxins; aflatoxins; pistachios; Pistacia vera L.; determination; analytical methods; occurrence; decontamination
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Soares Mateus, A.R.; Barros, S.; Pena, A.; Sanches Silva, A. Mycotoxins in Pistachios (Pistacia vera L.): Methods for Determination, Occurrence, Decontamination. Toxins 2021, 13, 682. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13100682

AMA Style

Soares Mateus AR, Barros S, Pena A, Sanches Silva A. Mycotoxins in Pistachios (Pistacia vera L.): Methods for Determination, Occurrence, Decontamination. Toxins. 2021; 13(10):682. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13100682

Chicago/Turabian Style

Soares Mateus, Ana R., Sílvia Barros, Angelina Pena, and Ana Sanches Silva. 2021. "Mycotoxins in Pistachios (Pistacia vera L.): Methods for Determination, Occurrence, Decontamination" Toxins 13, no. 10: 682. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13100682

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop