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Open AccessArticle

Gustatory Function and the Uremic Toxin, Phosphate, Are Modulators of the Risk of Vascular Calcification among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Pilot Study

1
Nephrology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital Beihu Branch, Taipei 108, Taiwan
2
Geriatric and Community Medicine Research Center, National Taiwan University Hospital BeiHu Branch, Taipei 108, Taiwan
3
Department of Nursing, National Taiwan University Hospital Beihu Branch, Taipei 108, Taiwan
4
Graduate Institute of Toxicology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
5
Department of Integrative Diagnostics and Therapeutics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan
6
Nephrology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital Yunlin Branch, Yunlin County 260, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12060420
Received: 18 May 2020 / Revised: 18 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 25 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Uremic Toxins)
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of vascular calcification (VC), including aortic arch calcification (AAC). Few investigated the influence of gustatory function on the probability of having VC. We examined whether gustatory function results modulated the probability of having VC in patients with CKD. We prospectively enrolled adults with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2), with their AAC rated semi-quantitatively and gustatory function assessed by objective and subjective approaches. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between gustatory function results and AAC. Those with AAC had significantly better objective gustatory function in aggregate scores (p = 0.039) and categories (p = 0.022) and less defective bitter taste (p = 0.045) and scores (p = 0.037) than those without. Multiple regression analyses showed that higher aggregate scores (odds ratio (OR) 1.288, p = 0.032), or better gustatory function, and higher bitter taste scores (OR 2.558, p = 0.019) were each associated with a higher probability of having AAC among CKD patients; such an association was modulated by serum phosphate levels. In conclusion, better gustatory function was independently correlated with having AAC among CKD patients. A follow-up of VC severity may be an underrecognized component of care for CKD patients with a preserved gustatory function. View Full-Text
Keywords: aortic calcification; chronic kidney disease; gustation; nutrition; taste dysfunction; vascular calcification aortic calcification; chronic kidney disease; gustation; nutrition; taste dysfunction; vascular calcification
MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, S.-I.; Chiang, C.-L.; Chao, C.-T.; Chiang, C.-K.; Huang, J.-W. Gustatory Function and the Uremic Toxin, Phosphate, Are Modulators of the Risk of Vascular Calcification among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Pilot Study. Toxins 2020, 12, 420.

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