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Inflammation and Premature Ageing in Chronic Kidney Disease

1
Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Division of Renal Medicine, SE-141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medicine Solna, Cardiovascular Medicine Unit, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
3
Karolinska University Hospital, Theme Heart and Vessels, Division of Valvular and Coronary Disease, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
4
University of Glasgow, Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Toxins 2020, 12(4), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12040227
Received: 1 February 2020 / Revised: 20 March 2020 / Accepted: 29 March 2020 / Published: 4 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comorbidities in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD))
Persistent low-grade inflammation and premature ageing are hallmarks of the uremic phenotype and contribute to impaired health status, reduced quality of life, and premature mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Because there is a huge global burden of disease due to CKD, treatment strategies targeting inflammation and premature ageing in CKD are of particular interest. Several distinct features of the uremic phenotype may represent potential treatment options to attenuate the risk of progression and poor outcome in CKD. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)–kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein with CNC homology [ECH]-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) signaling pathway, the endocrine phosphate-fibroblast growth factor-23–klotho axis, increased cellular senescence, and impaired mitochondrial biogenesis are currently the most promising candidates, and different pharmaceutical compounds are already under evaluation. If studies in humans show beneficial effects, carefully phenotyped patients with CKD can benefit from them. View Full-Text
Keywords: ageing; chronic kidney disease; end-stage kidney disease; inflammation; premature ageing; senescence; uremic toxins ageing; chronic kidney disease; end-stage kidney disease; inflammation; premature ageing; senescence; uremic toxins
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Ebert, T.; Pawelzik, S.-C.; Witasp, A.; Arefin, S.; Hobson, S.; Kublickiene, K.; Shiels, P.G.; Bäck, M.; Stenvinkel, P. Inflammation and Premature Ageing in Chronic Kidney Disease. Toxins 2020, 12, 227.

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