Next Article in Journal
Therapeutic Effects of Apamin as a Bee Venom Component for Non-Neoplastic Disease
Next Article in Special Issue
Combined (d)SPE-QuEChERS Extraction of Mycotoxins in Mixed Feed Rations and Analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Previous Article in Journal
Development of a Sensitive and Reliable UHPLC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Multiple Urinary Biomarkers of Mycotoxin Exposure
Previous Article in Special Issue
Variation of Fusarium Free, Masked, and Emerging Mycotoxin Metabolites in Maize from Agriculture Regions of South Africa
Open AccessArticle

Multi-Mycotoxin Occurrence and Exposure Assessment Approach in Foodstuffs from Algeria

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural and Life Science, University of Oran 1, 31100 Oran, Algeria
3
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Murcia, 30003 Murcia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030194 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 February 2020 / Revised: 13 March 2020 / Accepted: 17 March 2020 / Published: 19 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
A survey on 120 cereal samples (barley, maize, rice and wheat) from Algerian markets has been carried out to evaluate the presence of 15 mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1 and B2, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, zearalenone, fusarenon X, citrinin, sterigmatocystin, enniatins A, A1, B and B1, and beauvericin). With this purpose, a QuEChERS-based extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) were used. Analytical results showed that 78 cereal samples (65%) were contaminated with at least one toxin, while 50% were contaminated with three to nine mycotoxins. T-2 toxin, citrinin, beauvericin and deoxynivalenol were the most commonly found mycotoxins (frequency of 50%, 41.6%, 40.8% and 33.3%, respectively). Fumonisins (B1 + B2), enniatins B and B1, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone registered high concentrations (289–48878 µg/kg, 1.2–5288 µg/kg, 15–4569 µg/kg, 48–2055 µg/kg and 10.4–579 µg/kg, respectively). Furthermore, concentrations higher than those allowed by the European Union (EU) were observed in 21, 8 and 1 samples for fumonisins, zearalenone and deoxinivalenol, respectively. As a conclusion, the high levels of fumonisins (B1 + B2) in maize and deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and HT-2 + T-2 toxins in wheat, represent a health risk for the average adult consumer in Algeria. These results pointed out the necessity of a consistent control and the definition of maximum allowed levels for mycotoxins in Algerian foodstuffs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mycotoxins; cereals; UHPLC-MS/MS; exposure assessment; Algeria Mycotoxins; cereals; UHPLC-MS/MS; exposure assessment; Algeria
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mahdjoubi, C.K.; Arroyo-Manzanares, N.; Hamini-Kadar, N.; García-Campaña, A.M.; Mebrouk, K.; Gámiz-Gracia, L. Multi-Mycotoxin Occurrence and Exposure Assessment Approach in Foodstuffs from Algeria. Toxins 2020, 12, 194.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop