Bee venom is a natural toxin produced by honeybees and plays an important role in defending bee colonies. Bee venom has several kinds of peptides, including melittin, apamin, adolapamine, and mast cell degranulation peptides. Apamin accounts for about 2%–3% dry weight of bee venom and is a peptide neurotoxin that contains 18 amino acid residues that are tightly crosslinked by two disulfide bonds. It is well known for its pharmacological functions, which irreversibly block Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels. Apamin regulates gene expression in various signal transduction pathways involved in cell development. The aim of this study was to review the current understanding of apamin in the treatment of apoptosis, fibrosis, and central nervous system diseases, which are the pathological processes of various diseases. Apamin’s potential therapeutic and pharmacological applications are also discussed.
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