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Open AccessArticle

Toxins of Okadaic Acid-Group Increase Malignant Properties in Cells of Colon Cancer

1
Department of Basic and Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago 8380453, Chile
2
Physiology and Biophysics Program, ICBM, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago 8380453, Chile
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030179
Received: 24 January 2020 / Revised: 6 March 2020 / Accepted: 10 March 2020 / Published: 13 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a syndrome caused by the intake of shellfish contaminated with a group of lipophilic and thermostable toxins, which consists of okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2). These toxins are potent protein Ser/Thr phosphatase inhibitors, mainly type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) and type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A). Different effects have been reported at the cellular, molecular and genetic levels. In this study, changes in cell survival and cell mobility induced by OA, DTX-1 and DTX-2 were determined in epithelial cell lines of the colon and colon cancer. The cell viability results showed that tumoral cell lines were more resistant to toxins than the nontumoral cell line. The results of the functional assays for testing cell migration, evaluation of cell death and the expression of proteins associated with cell adhesion showed a dual effect of toxins since in the nontumoral cell line, a greater induction of cell death, presumably by anoikis, was detected. In the tumoral cell lines, there was an induction of a more aggressive phenotype characterized by increased resistance to toxins, increased migration and increased FAK activation. In tumoral cell lines of colon cancer, OA, DTX-1/DTX-2 induce a more aggressive phenotype. View Full-Text
Keywords: diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP); okadaic acid (OA); dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1); dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2); colorectal cancer diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP); okadaic acid (OA); dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1); dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2); colorectal cancer
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Jiménez-Cárcamo, D.; García, C.; Contreras, H.R. Toxins of Okadaic Acid-Group Increase Malignant Properties in Cells of Colon Cancer. Toxins 2020, 12, 179.

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