Next Article in Journal
Microcystin-LR Does Not Alter Cell Survival and Intracellular Signaling in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Interleukin-1 Receptor-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in the Pancreas Controls Hyperglycemia Caused by Scorpion Envenomation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ephedra sinica Stapf and Gypsum Attenuates Heat-Induced Hypothalamic Inflammation in Mice
Open AccessReview

Forty Years of the Description of Brown Spider Venom Phospholipases-D

1
Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba 81531-980, PR, Brazil
2
Centro de Produção e Pesquisa de Imunobiológicos (CPPI), Piraquara 83302-200, PR, Brazil
3
Departamento de Biologia Estrutural, Molecular e Genética, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa 84030-900, PR, Brazil
4
Centro Multiusuário de Inovação Biomolecular, Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), São José do Rio Preto 15054-000, SP, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030164
Received: 12 February 2020 / Revised: 28 February 2020 / Accepted: 2 March 2020 / Published: 6 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Development Using Natural Toxins)
Spiders of the genus Loxosceles, popularly known as Brown spiders, are considered a serious public health issue, especially in regions of hot or temperate climates, such as parts of North and South America. Although the venoms of these arachnids are complex in molecular composition, often containing proteins with distinct biochemical characteristics, the literature has primarily described a family of toxins, the Phospholipases-D (PLDs), which are highly conserved in all Loxosceles species. PLDs trigger most of the major clinical symptoms of loxoscelism i.e., dermonecrosis, thrombocytopenia, hemolysis, and acute renal failure. The key role played by PLDs in the symptomatology of loxoscelism was first described 40 years ago, when researches purified a hemolytic toxin that cleaved sphingomyelin and generated choline, and was referred to as a Sphingomyelinase-D, which was subsequently changed to Phospholipase-D when it was demonstrated that the enzyme also cleaved other cellular phospholipids. In this review, we present the information gleaned over the last 40 years about PLDs from Loxosceles venoms especially with regard to the production and characterization of recombinant isoforms. The history of obtaining these toxins is discussed, as well as their molecular organization and mechanisms of interaction with their substrates. We will address cellular biology aspects of these toxins and how they can be used in the development of drugs to address inflammatory processes and loxoscelism. Present and future aspects of loxoscelism diagnosis will be discussed, as well as their biotechnological applications and actions expected for the future in this field. View Full-Text
Keywords: brown spider; venom; phospholipases-D; biochemical and biological activities brown spider; venom; phospholipases-D; biochemical and biological activities
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gremski, L.H.; da Justa, H.C.; da Silva, T.P.; Polli, N.L.C.; Antunes, B.C.; Minozzo, J.C.; Wille, A.C.M.; Senff-Ribeiro, A.; Arni, R.K.; Veiga, S.S. Forty Years of the Description of Brown Spider Venom Phospholipases-D. Toxins 2020, 12, 164.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop