Multiple physiological variables change over time in a predictable and repetitive manner, guided by molecular clocks that respond to external and internal clues and are coordinated by a central clock. The kidney is the site of one of the most active peripheral clocks. Biological rhythms, of which the best known are circadian rhythms, are required for normal physiology of the kidneys and other organs. Chronodisruption refers to the chronic disruption of circadian rhythms leading to disease. While there is evidence that circadian rhythms may be altered in kidney disease and that altered circadian rhythms may accelerate chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, there is no comprehensive review on chronodisruption and chronodisruptors in CKD and its manifestations. Indeed, the term chronodisruption has been rarely applied to CKD despite chronodisruptors being potential therapeutic targets in CKD patients. We now discuss evidence for chronodisruption in CKD and the impact of chronodisruption on CKD manifestations, identify potential chronodisruptors, some of them uremic toxins, and their therapeutic implications, and discuss current unanswered questions on this topic.
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