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Cardiac Remodeling in Chronic Kidney Disease

1
Clinic for Renal and Hypertensive Disorders, Rheumatological and Immunological Disease, University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen, 52074 Aachen, Germany
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Nephrology and Transplantation, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015 GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030161
Received: 17 February 2020 / Revised: 2 March 2020 / Accepted: 3 March 2020 / Published: 5 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comorbidities in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD))
Cardiac remodeling occurs frequently in chronic kidney disease patients and affects quality of life and survival. Current treatment options are highly inadequate. As kidney function declines, numerous metabolic pathways are disturbed. Kidney and heart functions are highly connected by organ crosstalk. Among others, altered volume and pressure status, ischemia, accelerated atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis, disturbed mineral metabolism, renal anemia, activation of the renin-angiotensin system, uremic toxins, oxidative stress and upregulation of cytokines stress the sensitive interplay between different cardiac cell types. The fatal consequences are left-ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and capillary rarefaction, which lead to systolic and/or diastolic left-ventricular failure. Furthermore, fibrosis triggers electric instability and sudden cardiac death. This review focuses on established and potential pathophysiological cardiorenal crosstalk mechanisms that drive uremia-induced senescence and disease progression, including potential known targets and animal models that might help us to better understand the disease and to identify novel therapeutics. View Full-Text
Keywords: uremia; uremic cardiomyopathy; organ crosstalk; cardiorenal syndrome; chronic kidney disease; left-ventricular hypertrophy; heart failure; cardiac fibrosis uremia; uremic cardiomyopathy; organ crosstalk; cardiorenal syndrome; chronic kidney disease; left-ventricular hypertrophy; heart failure; cardiac fibrosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaesler, N.; Babler, A.; Floege, J.; Kramann, R. Cardiac Remodeling in Chronic Kidney Disease. Toxins 2020, 12, 161.

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