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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Different Doses of Zearalenone in Feed on the Bioavailability of Zearalenone and Alpha-Zearalenol, and the Concentrations of Estradiol and Testosterone in the Peripheral Blood of Pre-Pubertal Gilts

1
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13/29, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Independent Public Health Care Center of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration, and the Warmia and Mazury Oncology Center in Olsztyn, Wojska Polskiego 37, 10-228 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030144
Received: 31 January 2020 / Revised: 16 February 2020 / Accepted: 24 February 2020 / Published: 26 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Occurence in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health)
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term (48 days), per os administration of specific zearalenone (ZEN) doses (20 and 40 μg ZEN/kg BW in experimental groups EI and EII, which were equivalent to 200% and 400% of the upper range limit of the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), respectively) on the bioavailability of ZEN and the rate of changes in estradiol and testosterone concentrations in the peripheral blood of pre-pubertal gilts. ZEN and α-ZEL levels were similar until day 28. After day 28, α-ZEL concentrations increased significantly in group EI, whereas a significant rise in ZEN levels was noted in group EII. The presence of estradiol in peripheral blood plasma was not observed until day 20 of the experiment. Spontaneous secretion of estradiol was minimal, and it was determined at very low levels of up to 10 pg/mL in EI and EII groups. Testosterone concentrations ranged from 4 to 9 ng/mL in all groups. A decrease in the concentrations of both analyzed hormones was reported in the last stage of the experiment. The results of the experiment indicate that: (i) The bioavailability of ZEN in peripheral blood has low diagnostic value, (ii) exposure to low doses of ZEN induces minor changes in the concentrations of the analyzed hormones, which could lead to situational supraphysiological hormone levels and changes in endogenous hormonal balance. View Full-Text
Keywords: zearalenone; bioavailability; estradiol; testosterone; blood concentration; pre-pubertal gilts zearalenone; bioavailability; estradiol; testosterone; blood concentration; pre-pubertal gilts
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Zielonka, Ł.; Gajęcka, M.; Lisieska-Żołnierczyk, S.; Dąbrowski, M.; Gajęcki, M.T. The Effect of Different Doses of Zearalenone in Feed on the Bioavailability of Zearalenone and Alpha-Zearalenol, and the Concentrations of Estradiol and Testosterone in the Peripheral Blood of Pre-Pubertal Gilts. Toxins 2020, 12, 144.

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