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Open AccessArticle

Mitochondria and Lysosomes Participate in Vip3Aa-Induced Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 Cell Apoptosis

1
Department of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
2
Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300071, China
3
Tianjin Key Laboratory of Microbial Functional Genomics, Tianjin 300071, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(2), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020116 (registering DOI)
Received: 20 December 2019 / Revised: 9 February 2020 / Accepted: 12 February 2020 / Published: 13 February 2020
Vip3Aa, a soluble protein produced by certain Bacillus thuringiensis strains, is capable of inducing apoptosis in Sf9 cells. However, the apoptosis mechanism triggered by Vip3Aa is unclear. In this study, we found that Vip3Aa induces mitochondrial dysfunction, as evidenced by signs of collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, release of cytochrome c, and caspase-9 and -3 activation. Meanwhile, our results indicated that Vip3Aa reduces the ability of lysosomes in Sf9 cells to retain acridine orange. Moreover, pretreatment with Z-Phe-Tyr-CHO (a cathepsin L inhibitor) or pepstatin (a cathepsin D inhibitor) increased Sf9 cell viability, reduced cytochrome c release, and decreased caspase-9 and -3 activity. In conclusion, our findings suggested that Vip3Aa promotes Sf9 cell apoptosis by mitochondrial dysfunction, and lysosomes also play a vital role in the action of Vip3Aa.
Keywords: Vip3Aa; lysosome; mitochondria; apoptosis; Sf9 cells Vip3Aa; lysosome; mitochondria; apoptosis; Sf9 cells
MDPI and ACS Style

Hou, X.; Han, L.; An, B.; Zhang, Y.; Cao, Z.; Zhan, Y.; Cai, X.; Yan, B.; Cai, J. Mitochondria and Lysosomes Participate in Vip3Aa-Induced Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 Cell Apoptosis. Toxins 2020, 12, 116.

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