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Open AccessArticle

The Effectiveness of Durian Peel as a Multi-Mycotoxin Adsorbent

School of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, 99 Mhu 18, Paholyothin road, Khong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), National Research Council (CNR), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari, Italy
Functional Ingredient and Food Innovation Research Group, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 113 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Road, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(2), 108;
Received: 16 January 2020 / Accepted: 5 February 2020 / Published: 8 February 2020
Durian peel (DP) is an agricultural waste that is widely used in dyes and for organic and inorganic pollutant adsorption. In this study, durian peel was acid-treated to enhance its mycotoxin adsorption efficacy. The acid-treated durian peel (ATDP) was assessed for simultaneous adsorption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), and fumonisin B1 (FB1). The structure of the ATDP was also characterized by SEM–EDS, FT–IR, a zetasizer, and a surface-area analyzer. The results indicated that ATDP exhibited the highest mycotoxin adsorption towards AFB1 (98.4%), ZEA (98.4%), and OTA (97.3%), followed by FB1 (86.1%) and DON (2.0%). The pH significantly affected OTA and FB1 adsorption, whereas AFB1 and ZEA adsorption was not affected. Toxin adsorption by ATDP was dose-dependent and increased exponentially as the ATDP dosage increased. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax), determined at pH 3 and pH 7, was 40.7 and 41.6 mmol kg−1 for AFB1, 15.4 and 17.3 mmol kg−1 for ZEA, 46.6 and 0.6 mmol kg−1 for OTA, and 28.9 and 0.1 mmol kg−1 for FB1, respectively. Interestingly, ATDP reduced the bioaccessibility of these mycotoxins after gastrointestinal digestion using an in vitro, validated, static model. The ATDP showed a more porous structure, with a larger surface area and a surface charge modification. These structural changes following acid treatment may explain the higher efficacy of ATDP in adsorbing mycotoxins. Hence, ATDP can be considered as a promising waste material for mycotoxin biosorption. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; durian peel; agricultural by-products; biosorption; gastrointestinal digestion model; decontamination; equilibrium isotherms mycotoxins; durian peel; agricultural by-products; biosorption; gastrointestinal digestion model; decontamination; equilibrium isotherms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Adunphatcharaphon, S.; Petchkongkaew, A.; Greco, D.; D’Ascanio, V.; Visessanguan, W.; Avantaggiato, G. The Effectiveness of Durian Peel as a Multi-Mycotoxin Adsorbent. Toxins 2020, 12, 108.

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