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Open AccessArticle

Determination of Ochratoxin A and Ochratoxin B in Archived Tokaj Wines (Vintage 1959–2017) Using On-Line Solid Phase Extraction Coupled to Liquid Chromatography

1
The Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Charles University, Ak. Heyrovského 1203, 500 05 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
2
The Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(12), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12120739
Received: 27 October 2020 / Revised: 19 November 2020 / Accepted: 20 November 2020 / Published: 24 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure to Mycotoxins via Food Chain)
According to the EU legislation, ochratoxin A contamination is controlled in wines. Tokaj wine is a special type of sweet wine produced from botrytized grapes infected by “noble rot” Botrytis cinerea. Although a high contamination was reported in sweet wines and noble rot grapes could be susceptible to coinfection with other fungi, including ochratoxigenic species, no screening of Tokaj wines for mycotoxin contamination has been carried out so far. Therefore, we developed an analytical method for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) and ochratoxin B (OTB) involving online SPE coupled to HPLC-FD using column switching to achieve the fast and sensitive control of mycotoxin contamination. The method was validated with recoveries ranging from 91.6% to 99.1% with an RSD less than 2%. The limits of quantification were 0.1 and 0.2 µg L−1 for OTA and OTB, respectively. The total analysis time of the online SPE-HPLC-FD method was a mere 6 min. This high throughput enables routine analysis. Finally, we carried out an extensive investigation of the ochratoxin contamination in 59 Slovak Tokaj wines of 1959–2017 vintage. Only a few positives were detected. The OTA content in most of the checked wines did not exceed the EU maximum tolerable limit of 2 µg L−1, indicating a good quality of winegrowing and storing. View Full-Text
Keywords: ochratoxin A; ochratoxin B; mycotoxin; Tokaj wine; food control; chromatography; online extraction; column switching ochratoxin A; ochratoxin B; mycotoxin; Tokaj wine; food control; chromatography; online extraction; column switching
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kholová, A.; Lhotská, I.; Uhrová, A.; Špánik, I.; Machyňáková, A.; Solich, P.; Švec, F.; Šatínský, D. Determination of Ochratoxin A and Ochratoxin B in Archived Tokaj Wines (Vintage 1959–2017) Using On-Line Solid Phase Extraction Coupled to Liquid Chromatography. Toxins 2020, 12, 739.

AMA Style

Kholová A, Lhotská I, Uhrová A, Špánik I, Machyňáková A, Solich P, Švec F, Šatínský D. Determination of Ochratoxin A and Ochratoxin B in Archived Tokaj Wines (Vintage 1959–2017) Using On-Line Solid Phase Extraction Coupled to Liquid Chromatography. Toxins. 2020; 12(12):739.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kholová, Aneta; Lhotská, Ivona; Uhrová, Adéla; Špánik, Ivan; Machyňáková, Andrea; Solich, Petr; Švec, František; Šatínský, Dalibor. 2020. "Determination of Ochratoxin A and Ochratoxin B in Archived Tokaj Wines (Vintage 1959–2017) Using On-Line Solid Phase Extraction Coupled to Liquid Chromatography" Toxins 12, no. 12: 739.

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